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PRO-POOR PLANNING: A Tool for Strategic Territorial Planning and a Conceptual Framework Drawn from Studies in Colombia and Costa Rica

de la Espriella, Carlos LU (2009) In Thesis 5.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Inom ramen för detta forskningsprojekt har det utvecklats två resultat. En operativ teknik – kallad ”Tool for Strategic Territorial Planning (TSTP)” – som hjälper stadsplanerare att visualisera och bättre informera beslutsfattare om vilka effekter olika åtgärder får på fattigdoms bekämpning, har utvecklats. Detta genom att med statistisk information som grund, framställa kartor som visar den geografiska spridningen av olika dimensioner av fattigdom. Den föreslagna tekniken testades i två fallstudier. Den första studien utvärderade stadsplaneringsrelaterade samband mellan fastighetsvärden, samhällsinterventioner och boendedynamik i den fattiga och centralt belägna stadsdelen ”Las Cruces” i Bogotá,... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Inom ramen för detta forskningsprojekt har det utvecklats två resultat. En operativ teknik – kallad ”Tool for Strategic Territorial Planning (TSTP)” – som hjälper stadsplanerare att visualisera och bättre informera beslutsfattare om vilka effekter olika åtgärder får på fattigdoms bekämpning, har utvecklats. Detta genom att med statistisk information som grund, framställa kartor som visar den geografiska spridningen av olika dimensioner av fattigdom. Den föreslagna tekniken testades i två fallstudier. Den första studien utvärderade stadsplaneringsrelaterade samband mellan fastighetsvärden, samhällsinterventioner och boendedynamik i den fattiga och centralt belägna stadsdelen ”Las Cruces” i Bogotá, Colombia. Den andra studien analyserade effekten på fyra olika dimensioner av fattigdom vid genomförandet av Costa Ricas bostadspolitik för fattiga i den medelstora staden Liberia.

Genom analys av dessa två fallstudier tillsammans med tidigare erfarenheter, utvecklades det andra resultatet av detta forskningsprojekt, vilken består av rekommendationer – ”Pro-poor Planning Conceptual Framework” – för att främja en stadsplaneringsprocess som arbetar för att minska fattigdom och ojämlikhet.

Två huvudsakliga slutsatser kunde dras. För det första var användandet av en teknik som framställer kartor för att visa olika typer av fattigdom positivt för att främja en stadsplaneringsprocess som minskar fattigdom. Detta gäller inte bara som en metod för att visa den geografiska spridningen av olika dimensioner av fattigdom, utan också som ett hjälpmedel för att underlätta dialogen mellan olika aktörer inom stadsplanering, för att definiera olika fattigdoms indikatorer, för att analysera och tolka resultatet samt för att definiera och prioritera åtgärder.

För det andra visade det sig att trots att en viktig process under de senaste åren har varit att flytta makt och resurser från centrala regeringsnivåer till lokala beslutsnivåer (decentralisering) för att uppnå ökad demokratisering, så har decentralisering i Latinamerika huvudsakligen initierats och genomförts som svar på ekonomiska och politiska kriser och genom påtryckningar utifrån. Användningen av samhällets resurser har ofta inte förbättrats, deltagandet av lokalsamhället är fortfarande svagt samt interregionala skillnader består. Avhandlingen visar att sambandet mellan decentralisering och demokratisk utveckling i Latinamerika är svagt, vilket leder till att stadsplaneringens roll i fattigdomsbekämpning, trots ökat inflytande under senare år, fortfarande är outvecklad.

Sex slutsatser och rekommendationer:

• att använda kartor som identifierar fattiga stadsdelar med klart definierade gränser visade sig vara positivt för att kunna tydliggöra och prioritera var åtgärder inom stadsplanering, trots begränsade resurser, ger bäst effekt för att uppnå minskad fattigdom

• åtgärder – sociala eller fysiska – måste beskrivas och planeras i en åtgärdsplan så att fattigdom minskas istället för att enbart förflyttas

• ökat fokus behövs på strategier och långtidseffekter av samhällsprogram och projekt för att effektivt genomföra fattigdomsbekämpning

• den föreslagna tekniken (TSTP) är flexibel och kan användas inom fyra funktioner av stadsplanering: diagnostik, simulering, beslutsfattande och uppföljning

• enbart den föreslagna tekniken kan inte hantera de strukturella hinder som finns inom stadsplaneringen, vilket är varför det även utarbetades en uppsättning rekommendationer för att uppnå en stadsplanering som bättre reducerar fattigdom

• större insatser krävs i utvecklingsländer för insamlandet och hanteringen av statistiska och kartografiska data

De här beskrivna slutsatserna och resultaten behandlar problemet att många myndigheter ansvariga för stadsplanering i utvecklingsländer saknar konceptuell, teknisk, empirisk och administrativ kapacitet för att förstå och påvisa fattigdom på stadsnivå, vilket försvårar för dem att informera beslutsfattare om vilka effekterna blir på fattigdomsbekämpning av de åtgärder de planerar, genomför och följer upp.

Forskningen använde en cirkulär metodik, där först en planeringsteknik utvecklades baserad på observationer, litteratursammanställning och djupintervjuer; sedan testades den föreslagna tekniken i två fallstudier där data samlades in från undersökningar, frågeformulär och folkräkningar, vilka analyserades med hjälp av geografiska informationssystem (GIS) och slutligen, reflektion kring resultatet genom strukturerade diskussioner, artiklar och workshops för att utveckla en uppsättning rekommendationer. (Less)
Abstract
Few planning practices in the South seem to be equipped with key concepts and technical, empirical and administrative capacities required to comprehend and visualize the phenomenon of poverty at inter- and intra-urban levels, which compromises their ability to inform decision-makers on the effects on poverty reduction of the land-based actions they design, implement and monitor.

This challenge was addressed from conceptual, technical, empirical, and administrative angles, which correspond to the research objectives. As a result, the study developed a Tool for Strategic Territorial Planning, TSTP™, which – using evidence-based poverty maps – helps urban planners comprehend and visualize the effects of land-based actions on poverty... (More)
Few planning practices in the South seem to be equipped with key concepts and technical, empirical and administrative capacities required to comprehend and visualize the phenomenon of poverty at inter- and intra-urban levels, which compromises their ability to inform decision-makers on the effects on poverty reduction of the land-based actions they design, implement and monitor.

This challenge was addressed from conceptual, technical, empirical, and administrative angles, which correspond to the research objectives. As a result, the study developed a Tool for Strategic Territorial Planning, TSTP™, which – using evidence-based poverty maps – helps urban planners comprehend and visualize the effects of land-based actions on poverty reduction in order to be better equipped to inform decision-makers. A Pro-poor Planning Conceptual Framework was also developed based on the applications of the TSTP™. Particularly, the study used a spiral methodology in which experiences of planning practice were used to reflect on, conceptualise, experiment with and suggest modifications to specific aspects of planning theory, which in turns nourished the same planning practice, as follows. First, the TSTP™ was developed on the bases of observations, literature review and in-depth interviews; then, the proposed technique was tested in two case studies, in which data was collected from surveys, questionnaires and census microdata, and analysed using geographic information systems; and lastly, the reflection on, and conceptualisation of, findings was used to develop the Pro-poor Planning Conceptual Framework using structured discussions, working papers and research workshops.

The study showed that the use of an evidence-based poverty map technique is of significant importance to promote pro-poor planning practice, not only as a method to visualise the geographical distribution of poverty, but also as a tool to facilitate dialogue amongst different planning stakeholders when defining indicators of poverty, when analysing and discussing the results, and when defining and prioritizing actions. On the other hand, it showed that decentralization in Latin America has been a top-down process initiated in response to systemic economic or political crisis and accompanied by external pressures (as opposed to its motor being the deepening of democracy), and that management of public resources has not improved, participation of civil society is poor, and inter-regional inequalities still persist. Hence, it argued that the causal link between decentralization and democratic development in Latin America appears to be tenuous, which helps to understand why the impact of local planning practice on poverty reduction still looks weak. Six specific findings emerged:

• the combination of poverty and inequality maps help in the identification of deprived urban areas with a clearly defined territory in which to implement pro-poor land-based actions that are in line with scarce resources

• social and physical public interventions need to be combined and articulated in a plan of actions in order to reduce poverty, instead of just displacing the poor

• more attention is required to targeting strategies and to long-term impacts of public programmes and projects in order to effectively and efficiently combat poverty

• the proposed technique is flexible enough to be used in at least four functions of urban planning: diagnostic, simulation, decision-making and monitoring

• the proposed technique alone cannot cope with structural limitations of urban planning, which is why a pro-poor planning conceptual framework was developed

• greater efforts are required in relation to the collection and management of statistical and cartographic data in the South. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Dr Harder, Henrik, Architecture & Design, Aalborg University
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Poverty Reduction, Statistical Information, Social Housing, Urban Governance, Urbanization, Poverty Impact Assessments, Poverty Mapping, Local Authorities, Poverty, Integrated Urban Planning, Inequality, Geographic Information Systems, Decentralization, Costa Rica, Census Microdata, Colombia, Urban Residential Segregation, Urban Planning
in
Thesis
volume
5
pages
200 pages
publisher
Housing Development & Management, LTH, Lund University
defense location
Hall B, A-building, Sölvegatan 24, Lund University Faculty of Engineering
defense date
2009-03-27 10:15
ISSN
1652-7666
ISBN
968-91-87866-32-6
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
7d630ef3-f603-4168-bbda-925d65b42fbc (old id 1289010)
date added to LUP
2009-03-03 12:54:12
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:48
@phdthesis{7d630ef3-f603-4168-bbda-925d65b42fbc,
  abstract     = {Few planning practices in the South seem to be equipped with key concepts and technical, empirical and administrative capacities required to comprehend and visualize the phenomenon of poverty at inter- and intra-urban levels, which compromises their ability to inform decision-makers on the effects on poverty reduction of the land-based actions they design, implement and monitor.<br/><br>
 This challenge was addressed from conceptual, technical, empirical, and administrative angles, which correspond to the research objectives. As a result, the study developed a Tool for Strategic Territorial Planning, TSTP™, which – using evidence-based poverty maps – helps urban planners comprehend and visualize the effects of land-based actions on poverty reduction in order to be better equipped to inform decision-makers. A Pro-poor Planning Conceptual Framework was also developed based on the applications of the TSTP™. Particularly, the study used a spiral methodology in which experiences of planning practice were used to reflect on, conceptualise, experiment with and suggest modifications to specific aspects of planning theory, which in turns nourished the same planning practice, as follows. First, the TSTP™ was developed on the bases of observations, literature review and in-depth interviews; then, the proposed technique was tested in two case studies, in which data was collected from surveys, questionnaires and census microdata, and analysed using geographic information systems; and lastly, the reflection on, and conceptualisation of, findings was used to develop the Pro-poor Planning Conceptual Framework using structured discussions, working papers and research workshops.<br/><br>
 The study showed that the use of an evidence-based poverty map technique is of significant importance to promote pro-poor planning practice, not only as a method to visualise the geographical distribution of poverty, but also as a tool to facilitate dialogue amongst different planning stakeholders when defining indicators of poverty, when analysing and discussing the results, and when defining and prioritizing actions. On the other hand, it showed that decentralization in Latin America has been a top-down process initiated in response to systemic economic or political crisis and accompanied by external pressures (as opposed to its motor being the deepening of democracy), and that management of public resources has not improved, participation of civil society is poor, and inter-regional inequalities still persist. Hence, it argued that the causal link between decentralization and democratic development in Latin America appears to be tenuous, which helps to understand why the impact of local planning practice on poverty reduction still looks weak. Six specific findings emerged:<br/><br>
•	the combination of poverty and inequality maps help in the identification of deprived urban areas with a clearly defined territory in which to implement pro-poor land-based actions that are in line with scarce resources<br/><br>
•	social and physical public interventions need to be combined and articulated in a plan of actions in order to reduce poverty, instead of just displacing the poor<br/><br>
•	more attention is required to targeting strategies and to long-term impacts of public programmes and projects in order to effectively and efficiently combat poverty<br/><br>
•	the proposed technique is flexible enough to be used in at least four functions of urban planning: diagnostic, simulation, decision-making and monitoring<br/><br>
•	the proposed technique alone cannot cope with structural limitations of urban planning, which is why a pro-poor planning conceptual framework was developed<br/><br>
•	greater efforts are required in relation to the collection and management of statistical and cartographic data in the South.},
  author       = {de la Espriella, Carlos},
  isbn         = {968-91-87866-32-6},
  issn         = {1652-7666},
  keyword      = {Poverty Reduction,Statistical Information,Social Housing,Urban Governance,Urbanization,Poverty Impact Assessments,Poverty Mapping,Local Authorities,Poverty,Integrated Urban Planning,Inequality,Geographic Information Systems,Decentralization,Costa Rica,Census Microdata,Colombia,Urban Residential Segregation,Urban Planning},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {200},
  publisher    = {Housing Development & Management, LTH, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Thesis},
  title        = {PRO-POOR PLANNING: A Tool for Strategic Territorial Planning and a Conceptual Framework Drawn from Studies in Colombia and Costa Rica},
  volume       = {5},
  year         = {2009},
}