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Past changes in arctic terrestrial ecosystems, climate and UV radiation

Callaghan, Terry V.; Björn, Lars Olof LU ; Chernov, Yuri; Chapin, Terry; Christensen, Torben LU ; Huntley, Brian; Ims, Rolf A.; Johansson, Margareta LU ; Jolly, Dyanna and Jonasson, Sven, et al. (2004) In Ambio 33(7). p.398-403
Abstract
At the last glacial maximum, vast ice sheets covered many continental areas. The beds of some shallow seas were exposed thereby connecting previously separated landmasses. Although some areas were ice-free and supported a flora and fauna, mean annual temperatures were 10-13degreesC colder than during the Holocene. Within a few millennia of the glacial maximum, deglaciation started, characterized by a series of climatic fluctuations between about 18 000 and 11 400 years ago. Following the general thermal maximum in the Holocene, there has been a modest overall cooling trend, superimposed upon which have been a series of millennial and centennial fluctuations in climate such as the "Little Ice Age spanning approximately the late 13th to... (More)
At the last glacial maximum, vast ice sheets covered many continental areas. The beds of some shallow seas were exposed thereby connecting previously separated landmasses. Although some areas were ice-free and supported a flora and fauna, mean annual temperatures were 10-13degreesC colder than during the Holocene. Within a few millennia of the glacial maximum, deglaciation started, characterized by a series of climatic fluctuations between about 18 000 and 11 400 years ago. Following the general thermal maximum in the Holocene, there has been a modest overall cooling trend, superimposed upon which have been a series of millennial and centennial fluctuations in climate such as the "Little Ice Age spanning approximately the late 13th to early 19th centuries. Throughout the climatic fluctuations of the last 150 000 years, Arctic ecosystems and biota have been close to their minimum extent within the most recent 10 000 years. They suffered loss of diversity as a result of extinctions during the most recent large-magnitude rapid global warming at the end of the last glacial stage. Consequently, Arctic ecosystems and biota such as large vertebrates are already under pressure and are particularly vulnerable to current and projected future global warming. Evidence from the past indicates that the treeline will very as it probably advance, perhaps rapidly, into tundra areas, a it did during the early Holocene, reducing the extent of tundra and increasing the risk of species extinction. Species will very probably extend their ranges northwards, displacing Arctic species as in the past. However, unlike the early Holocene, when lower relative sea level allowed a belt of tundra to persist around at least some parts of the Arctic basin when treelines advanced to the present coast, sea level is very likely to rise in future, further restricting the area of tundra and other treeless Arctic ecosystems. The negative response of current Arctic ecosystems to global climatic conditions that are apparently without precedent during the Pleistocene is likely to be considerable, particularly as their exposure to co-occurring environmental changes (such as enhanced levels of UV-B, deposition of nitrogen compounds from the atmosphere, heavy metal and acidic pollution, radioactive contamination, increased habitat fragmentation) is also without precedent. (Less)
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in
Ambio
volume
33
issue
7
pages
398 - 403
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • wos:000225006300003
  • pmid:15573568
  • scopus:8844238413
ISSN
0044-7447
DOI
10.1639/0044-7447%282004%29033%5B0398%3APCIATE%5D2.0.CO%3B2
language
English
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yes
id
eb00d4c4-459d-47bf-94cc-0dacc7bb0eac (old id 132477)
date added to LUP
2007-07-23 09:00:30
date last changed
2017-07-02 04:15:17
@article{eb00d4c4-459d-47bf-94cc-0dacc7bb0eac,
  abstract     = {At the last glacial maximum, vast ice sheets covered many continental areas. The beds of some shallow seas were exposed thereby connecting previously separated landmasses. Although some areas were ice-free and supported a flora and fauna, mean annual temperatures were 10-13degreesC colder than during the Holocene. Within a few millennia of the glacial maximum, deglaciation started, characterized by a series of climatic fluctuations between about 18 000 and 11 400 years ago. Following the general thermal maximum in the Holocene, there has been a modest overall cooling trend, superimposed upon which have been a series of millennial and centennial fluctuations in climate such as the "Little Ice Age spanning approximately the late 13th to early 19th centuries. Throughout the climatic fluctuations of the last 150 000 years, Arctic ecosystems and biota have been close to their minimum extent within the most recent 10 000 years. They suffered loss of diversity as a result of extinctions during the most recent large-magnitude rapid global warming at the end of the last glacial stage. Consequently, Arctic ecosystems and biota such as large vertebrates are already under pressure and are particularly vulnerable to current and projected future global warming. Evidence from the past indicates that the treeline will very as it probably advance, perhaps rapidly, into tundra areas, a it did during the early Holocene, reducing the extent of tundra and increasing the risk of species extinction. Species will very probably extend their ranges northwards, displacing Arctic species as in the past. However, unlike the early Holocene, when lower relative sea level allowed a belt of tundra to persist around at least some parts of the Arctic basin when treelines advanced to the present coast, sea level is very likely to rise in future, further restricting the area of tundra and other treeless Arctic ecosystems. The negative response of current Arctic ecosystems to global climatic conditions that are apparently without precedent during the Pleistocene is likely to be considerable, particularly as their exposure to co-occurring environmental changes (such as enhanced levels of UV-B, deposition of nitrogen compounds from the atmosphere, heavy metal and acidic pollution, radioactive contamination, increased habitat fragmentation) is also without precedent.},
  author       = {Callaghan, Terry V. and Björn, Lars Olof and Chernov, Yuri and Chapin, Terry and Christensen, Torben and Huntley, Brian and Ims, Rolf A. and Johansson, Margareta and Jolly, Dyanna and Jonasson, Sven and Matveyeva, Nadya and Panikov, Nicolai and Oechel, Walter and Shaver, Gus},
  issn         = {0044-7447},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {398--403},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Ambio},
  title        = {Past changes in arctic terrestrial ecosystems, climate and UV radiation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1639/0044-7447%282004%29033%5B0398%3APCIATE%5D2.0.CO%3B2},
  volume       = {33},
  year         = {2004},
}