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Effects on the structure of arctic ecosystems in the short- and long-term perspectives

Callaghan, Terry V.; Björn, Lars Olof LU ; Chernov, Yuri; Chapin, Terry; Christensen, Torben LU ; Huntley, Brian; Ims, Rolf A.; Johansson, Margareta LU ; Jolly, Dyanna and Jonasson, Sven, et al. (2004) In Ambio 33(7). p.436-447
Abstract
Species individualistic responses to warming and increased UV-B radiation are moderated by the responses of neighbors within communities, and trophic interactions within ecosystems. All of these responses lead to changes in ecosystem structure. Experimental manipulation of environmental factors expected to change at high latitudes showed that summer warming of tundra vegetation has generally led to smaller changes than fertilizer addition. Some of the factors manipulated have strong effects on the structure of Arctic ecosystems but the effects vary regionally, with the greatest response of plant and invertebrate communities being observed at the coldest locations. Arctic invertebrate communities are very likely to respond rapidly to... (More)
Species individualistic responses to warming and increased UV-B radiation are moderated by the responses of neighbors within communities, and trophic interactions within ecosystems. All of these responses lead to changes in ecosystem structure. Experimental manipulation of environmental factors expected to change at high latitudes showed that summer warming of tundra vegetation has generally led to smaller changes than fertilizer addition. Some of the factors manipulated have strong effects on the structure of Arctic ecosystems but the effects vary regionally, with the greatest response of plant and invertebrate communities being observed at the coldest locations. Arctic invertebrate communities are very likely to respond rapidly to warming whereas microbial biomass and nutrient stocks are more stable. Experimentally enhanced UV-B radiation altered the community composition of gram-negative bacteria and fungi, but not that of plants. Increased plant productivity due to warmer summers may dominate food-web dynamics. Trophic interactions of tundra and sub-Arctic forest plant-based food webs are centered on a few dominant animal species which often have cyclic population fluctuations that lead to extremely high peak abundances in some years. Population cycles of small rodents and insect defoliators such as the autumn moth affect the structure and diversity of tundra and forest-tundra vegetation and the viability of a number of specialist predators and parasites. Ice crusting in warmer winters is likely to reduce the accessibility of plant food to lemmings, while deep snow may protect them from snow-surface predators. In Fennoscandia, there is evidence already for a pronounced shift in small rodent community structure and dynamics that have resulted in a decline of predators that specialize in feeding on small rodents. Climate is also likely to alter the role of insect pests in the birch forest system: warmer winters may increase survival of eggs and expand the range of the insects. Insects that harass reindeer in the summer are also likely to become more widespread, abundant and active during warmer summers while refuges for reindeer/caribou on glaciers and late snow patches will probably disappear. (Less)
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publication status
published
subject
keywords
terrestrial ecosystems climate change ultraviolet radiation
in
Ambio
volume
33
issue
7
pages
436 - 447
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • wos:000225006300006
  • pmid:15573571
  • scopus:8844244040
ISSN
0044-7447
DOI
10.1579/0044-7447-33.7.436
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
9aa43c28-fb21-4753-94a9-90357a538974 (old id 133462)
date added to LUP
2007-07-23 09:54:40
date last changed
2017-12-10 04:33:23
@article{9aa43c28-fb21-4753-94a9-90357a538974,
  abstract     = {Species individualistic responses to warming and increased UV-B radiation are moderated by the responses of neighbors within communities, and trophic interactions within ecosystems. All of these responses lead to changes in ecosystem structure. Experimental manipulation of environmental factors expected to change at high latitudes showed that summer warming of tundra vegetation has generally led to smaller changes than fertilizer addition. Some of the factors manipulated have strong effects on the structure of Arctic ecosystems but the effects vary regionally, with the greatest response of plant and invertebrate communities being observed at the coldest locations. Arctic invertebrate communities are very likely to respond rapidly to warming whereas microbial biomass and nutrient stocks are more stable. Experimentally enhanced UV-B radiation altered the community composition of gram-negative bacteria and fungi, but not that of plants. Increased plant productivity due to warmer summers may dominate food-web dynamics. Trophic interactions of tundra and sub-Arctic forest plant-based food webs are centered on a few dominant animal species which often have cyclic population fluctuations that lead to extremely high peak abundances in some years. Population cycles of small rodents and insect defoliators such as the autumn moth affect the structure and diversity of tundra and forest-tundra vegetation and the viability of a number of specialist predators and parasites. Ice crusting in warmer winters is likely to reduce the accessibility of plant food to lemmings, while deep snow may protect them from snow-surface predators. In Fennoscandia, there is evidence already for a pronounced shift in small rodent community structure and dynamics that have resulted in a decline of predators that specialize in feeding on small rodents. Climate is also likely to alter the role of insect pests in the birch forest system: warmer winters may increase survival of eggs and expand the range of the insects. Insects that harass reindeer in the summer are also likely to become more widespread, abundant and active during warmer summers while refuges for reindeer/caribou on glaciers and late snow patches will probably disappear.},
  author       = {Callaghan, Terry V. and Björn, Lars Olof and Chernov, Yuri and Chapin, Terry and Christensen, Torben and Huntley, Brian and Ims, Rolf A. and Johansson, Margareta and Jolly, Dyanna and Jonasson, Sven and Matveyeva, Nadya and Panikov, Nicolai and Oechel, Walter and Shaver, Gus and Henttonen, Heikki},
  issn         = {0044-7447},
  keyword      = {terrestrial ecosystems climate change ultraviolet radiation},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {436--447},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Ambio},
  title        = {Effects on the structure of arctic ecosystems in the short- and long-term perspectives},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447-33.7.436},
  volume       = {33},
  year         = {2004},
}