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Chemical composition and mass emission factors of candle smoke particles

Pagels, Joakim LU ; Wierzbicka, Aneta LU ; Fors, Erik LU ; Isaxon, Christina LU ; Dahl, Andreas LU ; Gudmundsson, Anders LU ; Swietlicki, Erik LU and Bohgard, Mats LU (2009) In Journal of Aerosol Science 40(3). p.193-208
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the physical and chemical properties of particle emissions from candle burning in indoor air. Two representative types of tapered candies were studied during steady burn, sooting burn and smouldering (upon extinction) under controlled conditions in a walk-in stainless steel chamber. Steady burn emits relatively high number emissions of ultrafine particles dominated by either phosphates or alkali nitrates. The likely source of these particles is flame retardant additives to the wick. Sooting burn in addition emits larger particles mainly consisting of agglomerated elemental carbon. This burning mode is associated with the highest mass emission factors. Particles emitted during smouldering upon... (More)
The aim of this study is to investigate the physical and chemical properties of particle emissions from candle burning in indoor air. Two representative types of tapered candies were studied during steady burn, sooting burn and smouldering (upon extinction) under controlled conditions in a walk-in stainless steel chamber. Steady burn emits relatively high number emissions of ultrafine particles dominated by either phosphates or alkali nitrates. The likely source of these particles is flame retardant additives to the wick. Sooting burn in addition emits larger particles mainly consisting of agglomerated elemental carbon. This burning mode is associated with the highest mass emission factors. Particles emitted during smouldering upon extinction are dominated by organic matter. A mass closure was illustrated for the total mass concentration, the summed mass concentration from chemical analysis and the size-integrated mass concentration assessed from number distribution measurements using empirically determined effective densities for the three particle types. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Ultrafine particles, Candles, Aerosol, Indoor air, Mass closure, Soot
in
Journal of Aerosol Science
volume
40
issue
3
pages
193 - 208
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000264353400002
  • scopus:59849130039
ISSN
0021-8502
DOI
10.1016/j.jaerosci.2008.10.005
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
d8258d81-4482-4aba-a42a-26d9810e49c4 (old id 1401822)
date added to LUP
2009-06-03 15:07:40
date last changed
2017-06-04 04:08:27
@article{d8258d81-4482-4aba-a42a-26d9810e49c4,
  abstract     = {The aim of this study is to investigate the physical and chemical properties of particle emissions from candle burning in indoor air. Two representative types of tapered candies were studied during steady burn, sooting burn and smouldering (upon extinction) under controlled conditions in a walk-in stainless steel chamber. Steady burn emits relatively high number emissions of ultrafine particles dominated by either phosphates or alkali nitrates. The likely source of these particles is flame retardant additives to the wick. Sooting burn in addition emits larger particles mainly consisting of agglomerated elemental carbon. This burning mode is associated with the highest mass emission factors. Particles emitted during smouldering upon extinction are dominated by organic matter. A mass closure was illustrated for the total mass concentration, the summed mass concentration from chemical analysis and the size-integrated mass concentration assessed from number distribution measurements using empirically determined effective densities for the three particle types. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.},
  author       = {Pagels, Joakim and Wierzbicka, Aneta and Fors, Erik and Isaxon, Christina and Dahl, Andreas and Gudmundsson, Anders and Swietlicki, Erik and Bohgard, Mats},
  issn         = {0021-8502},
  keyword      = {Ultrafine particles,Candles,Aerosol,Indoor air,Mass closure,Soot},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {193--208},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Journal of Aerosol Science},
  title        = {Chemical composition and mass emission factors of candle smoke particles},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2008.10.005},
  volume       = {40},
  year         = {2009},
}