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Human endogenous retrovirus family HERV-K(HML-5): Status, evolution, and reconstruction of an ancient betaretrovirus in the human genome

Lavie, Laurence; Medstrand, Patrik LU ; Schempp, Werner; Meese, Eckart and Mayer, Jens (2004) In Journal of Virology 78(16). p.8788-8798
Abstract
The human genome harbors numerous distinct families of so-called human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) which are remnants of exogenous retroviruses that entered the germ line millions of years ago. We describe here the hitherto little-characterized betaretrovirus HERV-K(HML-5) family (named HERVK22 in Repbase) in greater detail. Out of 139 proviruses, only a few loci represent full-length proviruses, and many lack gag protease and/or env gene regions. We generated a consensus sequence from multiple alignment of 62 HML-5 loci that displays open reading frames for the four major retroviral proteins. Four HML-5 long terminal repeat (LTR) subfamilies were identified that are associated with monophyletic proviral bodies, implying different... (More)
The human genome harbors numerous distinct families of so-called human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) which are remnants of exogenous retroviruses that entered the germ line millions of years ago. We describe here the hitherto little-characterized betaretrovirus HERV-K(HML-5) family (named HERVK22 in Repbase) in greater detail. Out of 139 proviruses, only a few loci represent full-length proviruses, and many lack gag protease and/or env gene regions. We generated a consensus sequence from multiple alignment of 62 HML-5 loci that displays open reading frames for the four major retroviral proteins. Four HML-5 long terminal repeat (LTR) subfamilies were identified that are associated with monophyletic proviral bodies, implying different evolution of HML-5 LTRs and genes. Sequence analysis indicated that the proviruses formed approximately 55 million years ago. Accordingly, HML-5 proviral sequences were detected in Old World and New World primates but not in prosimians. No recent activity is associated with this HERV family. We also conclude that the HML-5 consensus sequence primer binding site is identical to methionine tRNA. Therefore, the family should be designated HERV-M. Our study provides important insights into the structure and evolution of the oldest betaretrovirus in the primate genome known to date. (Less)
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author
organization
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type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Journal of Virology
volume
78
issue
16
pages
8788 - 8798
publisher
American Society for Microbiology
external identifiers
  • pmid:15280487
  • wos:000223046000038
  • scopus:3543069877
ISSN
1098-5514
DOI
10.1128/JVI.78.16.8788-8798.2004
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
404f4fe1-0ab7-4ac6-90f1-2c7825d5a46d (old id 141910)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15280487&query_hl=47
date added to LUP
2007-07-16 14:16:31
date last changed
2017-10-29 04:16:22
@article{404f4fe1-0ab7-4ac6-90f1-2c7825d5a46d,
  abstract     = {The human genome harbors numerous distinct families of so-called human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) which are remnants of exogenous retroviruses that entered the germ line millions of years ago. We describe here the hitherto little-characterized betaretrovirus HERV-K(HML-5) family (named HERVK22 in Repbase) in greater detail. Out of 139 proviruses, only a few loci represent full-length proviruses, and many lack gag protease and/or env gene regions. We generated a consensus sequence from multiple alignment of 62 HML-5 loci that displays open reading frames for the four major retroviral proteins. Four HML-5 long terminal repeat (LTR) subfamilies were identified that are associated with monophyletic proviral bodies, implying different evolution of HML-5 LTRs and genes. Sequence analysis indicated that the proviruses formed approximately 55 million years ago. Accordingly, HML-5 proviral sequences were detected in Old World and New World primates but not in prosimians. No recent activity is associated with this HERV family. We also conclude that the HML-5 consensus sequence primer binding site is identical to methionine tRNA. Therefore, the family should be designated HERV-M. Our study provides important insights into the structure and evolution of the oldest betaretrovirus in the primate genome known to date.},
  author       = {Lavie, Laurence and Medstrand, Patrik and Schempp, Werner and Meese, Eckart and Mayer, Jens},
  issn         = {1098-5514},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {16},
  pages        = {8788--8798},
  publisher    = {American Society for Microbiology},
  series       = {Journal of Virology},
  title        = {Human endogenous retrovirus family HERV-K(HML-5): Status, evolution, and reconstruction of an ancient betaretrovirus in the human genome},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.78.16.8788-8798.2004},
  volume       = {78},
  year         = {2004},
}