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Densities of large living and dead trees in old-growth temperate and boreal forests

Nilsson, Sven LU ; Niklasson, Mats; Hedin, Jonas LU ; Aronsson, Gillis; Gutowski, Jerzy M; Linder, Per; Ljungberg, Håkan LU ; Mikusinski, G and Ranius, Thomas LU (2002) In Forest Ecology and Management 161(1-3). p.189-204
Abstract
We recorded and reviewed densities and basal areas of large living and dead trees in old-growth forest in Europe. Recorded densities were similar to those reported from old-growth forests in eastern North America, but lower than in northwestem North America. Based on our results we suggest that, 10-20 living trees per ha with dbh > 70 cm may have been typical values for many central European and south Scandinavian virgin forests. In boreal forests, it was probably common with at least 20 living trees per ha with dbh > 40 cm. Basal areas of living trees in mixed old-growth forests in central Europe and southern Sweden were 34-40 m 2 per ha on dry ground and about 60 m(2) per ha in wet alder-ash-spruce forests. Densities of large trees... (More)
We recorded and reviewed densities and basal areas of large living and dead trees in old-growth forest in Europe. Recorded densities were similar to those reported from old-growth forests in eastern North America, but lower than in northwestem North America. Based on our results we suggest that, 10-20 living trees per ha with dbh > 70 cm may have been typical values for many central European and south Scandinavian virgin forests. In boreal forests, it was probably common with at least 20 living trees per ha with dbh > 40 cm. Basal areas of living trees in mixed old-growth forests in central Europe and southern Sweden were 34-40 m 2 per ha on dry ground and about 60 m(2) per ha in wet alder-ash-spruce forests. Densities of large trees (dbh > 40 cm) were twice as high in the latter forest type than on dry ground in Bialowieza forest, Poland. Based on our results, we propose the following generalizations to be further tested in other old-growth temperate and boreal forests: 1. Among all standing trunks (including high stumps) about 10% are dead. but this proportion increases for the largest trees. The proportion of standing trees that are dead seem to be independent of total basal areas. Based on this, we suggest that the volume of dead wood is directly proportional to the productivity of old-growth forests. 2. Standing dead trees (snags) are on average larger than downed dead trees. Trees with dbh >40 cm often dominate the basal area and volume of standing dead trees and living trees. 3. About 30% (20-40%) of the basal area and volume of dead trees is standing in old-growth forests. This proportion seems to be independent of total volume of dead wood. Large disturbances by fire, strong winds and insects may temporarily change these proportions considerably in individual stands. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Forest Ecology and Management
volume
161
issue
1-3
pages
189 - 204
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000175321800017
  • scopus:0037093682
ISSN
1872-7042
DOI
10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00480-7
project
SUFOR
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
ca346789-a03b-4cfd-84a0-24954809a615 (old id 145587)
date added to LUP
2007-06-25 10:43:15
date last changed
2017-11-05 04:35:20
@article{ca346789-a03b-4cfd-84a0-24954809a615,
  abstract     = {We recorded and reviewed densities and basal areas of large living and dead trees in old-growth forest in Europe. Recorded densities were similar to those reported from old-growth forests in eastern North America, but lower than in northwestem North America. Based on our results we suggest that, 10-20 living trees per ha with dbh > 70 cm may have been typical values for many central European and south Scandinavian virgin forests. In boreal forests, it was probably common with at least 20 living trees per ha with dbh > 40 cm. Basal areas of living trees in mixed old-growth forests in central Europe and southern Sweden were 34-40 m 2 per ha on dry ground and about 60 m(2) per ha in wet alder-ash-spruce forests. Densities of large trees (dbh > 40 cm) were twice as high in the latter forest type than on dry ground in Bialowieza forest, Poland. Based on our results, we propose the following generalizations to be further tested in other old-growth temperate and boreal forests: 1. Among all standing trunks (including high stumps) about 10% are dead. but this proportion increases for the largest trees. The proportion of standing trees that are dead seem to be independent of total basal areas. Based on this, we suggest that the volume of dead wood is directly proportional to the productivity of old-growth forests. 2. Standing dead trees (snags) are on average larger than downed dead trees. Trees with dbh >40 cm often dominate the basal area and volume of standing dead trees and living trees. 3. About 30% (20-40%) of the basal area and volume of dead trees is standing in old-growth forests. This proportion seems to be independent of total volume of dead wood. Large disturbances by fire, strong winds and insects may temporarily change these proportions considerably in individual stands. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Nilsson, Sven and Niklasson, Mats and Hedin, Jonas and Aronsson, Gillis and Gutowski, Jerzy M and Linder, Per and Ljungberg, Håkan and Mikusinski, G and Ranius, Thomas},
  issn         = {1872-7042},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1-3},
  pages        = {189--204},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  title        = {Densities of large living and dead trees in old-growth temperate and boreal forests},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00480-7},
  volume       = {161},
  year         = {2002},
}