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Concentrations of inorganic elements in bottled waters on the Swedish market

Rosborg, Ingegerd LU ; Nihlgård, Bengt LU ; Gerhardsson, Lars LU ; Gernersson, Maj-Lis LU ; Ohlin, Ragnhild LU and Olsson, Tommy LU (2005) In Environmental Geochemistry and Health 27(3). p.217-227
Abstract
This study presents the concentrations of about 50 metals and ions in 33 different brands of bottled waters on the Swedish market. Ten of the brands showed calcium (Ca) concentrations <= 10 mg L-1 and magnesium (Mg) levels < 3 mg L-1, implying very soft waters. Three of these waters had in addition low concentrations of sodium (Na; < 7 mg L-1), potassium (K; < 3 mg L-1) and bicarbonate (HCO3; <= 31 mg L-1). These brands were collected from barren districts. Nine of the brands were collected from limestone regions. They showed increased Ca-levels exceeding 50 mg L-1 with a maximum of 289 mg L-1. Corresponding Mg-levels were also raised in two brands exceeding 90 mg L-1. Two soft and carbonated waters were supplemented with... (More)
This study presents the concentrations of about 50 metals and ions in 33 different brands of bottled waters on the Swedish market. Ten of the brands showed calcium (Ca) concentrations <= 10 mg L-1 and magnesium (Mg) levels < 3 mg L-1, implying very soft waters. Three of these waters had in addition low concentrations of sodium (Na; < 7 mg L-1), potassium (K; < 3 mg L-1) and bicarbonate (HCO3; <= 31 mg L-1). These brands were collected from barren districts. Nine of the brands were collected from limestone regions. They showed increased Ca-levels exceeding 50 mg L-1 with a maximum of 289 mg L-1. Corresponding Mg-levels were also raised in two brands exceeding 90 mg L-1. Two soft and carbonated waters were supplemented with Na2CO3 and NaCl, resulting in high concentrations of Na ( 644 and 648 mg L-1) and chloride (Cl; 204 and 219 mg L-1). Such waters may make a substantial contribution to the daily intake of NaCl in high water consumers. The storage of carbonated drinking water in aluminum (Al) cans increased the Al-concentration to about 70 mu g L-1. Conclusion: As there was a large variation in the material as regards concentrations of macro-elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K and Cl. Supplementation with salts, e.g., Na2CO3, K2CO3 and NaCl, can lead to increased concentrations of Na, K and Cl, as well as decreased ratios of Ca/Na and larger ratios of Na/K. Water with high concentrations of e. g., Ca and Mg, may make a substantial contribution to the daily intake of these elements in high water consumers. Al cans are less suited for storage of carbonated waters, as the lowered pH-values may dissolve Al. The levels of potentially toxic metals in the studied brands were generally low. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Environmental Geochemistry and Health
volume
27
issue
3
pages
217 - 227
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • wos:000230903300002
  • pmid:16059778
  • scopus:23744482387
ISSN
0269-4042
DOI
10.1007/s10653-004-1612-8
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
47ef4fec-3985-476a-88ee-50b58ded0033 (old id 147063)
date added to LUP
2007-06-25 15:42:14
date last changed
2017-04-30 13:37:06
@article{47ef4fec-3985-476a-88ee-50b58ded0033,
  abstract     = {This study presents the concentrations of about 50 metals and ions in 33 different brands of bottled waters on the Swedish market. Ten of the brands showed calcium (Ca) concentrations &lt;= 10 mg L-1 and magnesium (Mg) levels &lt; 3 mg L-1, implying very soft waters. Three of these waters had in addition low concentrations of sodium (Na; &lt; 7 mg L-1), potassium (K; &lt; 3 mg L-1) and bicarbonate (HCO3; &lt;= 31 mg L-1). These brands were collected from barren districts. Nine of the brands were collected from limestone regions. They showed increased Ca-levels exceeding 50 mg L-1 with a maximum of 289 mg L-1. Corresponding Mg-levels were also raised in two brands exceeding 90 mg L-1. Two soft and carbonated waters were supplemented with Na2CO3 and NaCl, resulting in high concentrations of Na ( 644 and 648 mg L-1) and chloride (Cl; 204 and 219 mg L-1). Such waters may make a substantial contribution to the daily intake of NaCl in high water consumers. The storage of carbonated drinking water in aluminum (Al) cans increased the Al-concentration to about 70 mu g L-1. Conclusion: As there was a large variation in the material as regards concentrations of macro-elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K and Cl. Supplementation with salts, e.g., Na2CO3, K2CO3 and NaCl, can lead to increased concentrations of Na, K and Cl, as well as decreased ratios of Ca/Na and larger ratios of Na/K. Water with high concentrations of e. g., Ca and Mg, may make a substantial contribution to the daily intake of these elements in high water consumers. Al cans are less suited for storage of carbonated waters, as the lowered pH-values may dissolve Al. The levels of potentially toxic metals in the studied brands were generally low.},
  author       = {Rosborg, Ingegerd and Nihlgård, Bengt and Gerhardsson, Lars and Gernersson, Maj-Lis and Ohlin, Ragnhild and Olsson, Tommy},
  issn         = {0269-4042},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {217--227},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Environmental Geochemistry and Health},
  title        = {Concentrations of inorganic elements in bottled waters on the Swedish market},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-004-1612-8},
  volume       = {27},
  year         = {2005},
}