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Horizontal flight of a swallow (Hirundo rustica) observed in a wind tunnel, with a new method for directly measuring mechanical power

Pennycuick, C J; Hedenström, Anders LU and Rosén, Mikael LU (2000) In Journal of Experimental Biology 203(11). p.1755-1765
Abstract
A swallow flying in the Lund wind tunnel was observed from the side and from behind, by two synchronised highspeed video cameras. The side-view camera provided a record of the vertical position of a white mark, applied to the feathers behind and below the eye, from which the vertical acceleration was obtained. The rear-view camera provided measurements of the mean angle of the left and right humeri above horizontal. From these data, the force acting on the body, the moment applied by each pectoralis muscle to the humerus and the rotation of the humerus were estimated and used to analyse the time course of a number of variables, including the work done by the muscles in each wing beat. The average mechanical power turned out to be more than... (More)
A swallow flying in the Lund wind tunnel was observed from the side and from behind, by two synchronised highspeed video cameras. The side-view camera provided a record of the vertical position of a white mark, applied to the feathers behind and below the eye, from which the vertical acceleration was obtained. The rear-view camera provided measurements of the mean angle of the left and right humeri above horizontal. From these data, the force acting on the body, the moment applied by each pectoralis muscle to the humerus and the rotation of the humerus were estimated and used to analyse the time course of a number of variables, including the work done by the muscles in each wing beat. The average mechanical power turned out to be more than that predicted on the basis of current estimates of body drag coefficient and profile power ratio, possibly because the bird was not flying steadily in a minimum-drag configuration, We hope to develop the method further by correlating the mechanical measurements with observations of the vortex wake and to apply it to birds that have been conditioned to hold a constant position in the test section. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Journal of Experimental Biology
volume
203
issue
11
pages
1755 - 1765
publisher
The Company of Biologists Ltd
external identifiers
  • scopus:0034083551
ISSN
1477-9145
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
2e590bb6-f808-4530-9347-c1d431b8e94c (old id 149219)
alternative location
http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/203/11/1755
date added to LUP
2007-06-26 11:16:06
date last changed
2017-01-01 04:48:13
@article{2e590bb6-f808-4530-9347-c1d431b8e94c,
  abstract     = {A swallow flying in the Lund wind tunnel was observed from the side and from behind, by two synchronised highspeed video cameras. The side-view camera provided a record of the vertical position of a white mark, applied to the feathers behind and below the eye, from which the vertical acceleration was obtained. The rear-view camera provided measurements of the mean angle of the left and right humeri above horizontal. From these data, the force acting on the body, the moment applied by each pectoralis muscle to the humerus and the rotation of the humerus were estimated and used to analyse the time course of a number of variables, including the work done by the muscles in each wing beat. The average mechanical power turned out to be more than that predicted on the basis of current estimates of body drag coefficient and profile power ratio, possibly because the bird was not flying steadily in a minimum-drag configuration, We hope to develop the method further by correlating the mechanical measurements with observations of the vortex wake and to apply it to birds that have been conditioned to hold a constant position in the test section.},
  author       = {Pennycuick, C J and Hedenström, Anders and Rosén, Mikael},
  issn         = {1477-9145},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1755--1765},
  publisher    = {The Company of Biologists Ltd},
  series       = {Journal of Experimental Biology},
  title        = {Horizontal flight of a swallow (Hirundo rustica) observed in a wind tunnel, with a new method for directly measuring mechanical power},
  volume       = {203},
  year         = {2000},
}