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Vikingeskattenes mennesker: Bornholmske sølvskatte som aktører i det økonomiske, sociale, kulturelle og symbolske felt fra ca. 850 - ca. 1150

Ingvardson, Gitte LU (2020)
Abstract
The empirical focus of this thesis is the Viking age hoards of Bornholm (c. 850 -c. 1150). Special emphasis is laid on 34 excavated hoard sites, which in unprecedented scale enable us to include the archeological context in the interpretation of Viking age hoards. Three research questions are asked: 1) Do hoards reflect the persons that accumulated, handled and deposited them, and is it possible to identify accumulation strategies? 2) Is the significance of the hoards reflected in the archaeological context? 3) How did hoard act as agents in Viking age society? The basic notion applied in this thesis is that hoards are shaped by humans’ choices and actions, and that these are reflected in the composition and deposition of the hoards.... (More)
The empirical focus of this thesis is the Viking age hoards of Bornholm (c. 850 -c. 1150). Special emphasis is laid on 34 excavated hoard sites, which in unprecedented scale enable us to include the archeological context in the interpretation of Viking age hoards. Three research questions are asked: 1) Do hoards reflect the persons that accumulated, handled and deposited them, and is it possible to identify accumulation strategies? 2) Is the significance of the hoards reflected in the archaeological context? 3) How did hoard act as agents in Viking age society? The basic notion applied in this thesis is that hoards are shaped by humans’ choices and actions, and that these are reflected in the composition and deposition of the hoards. Further, it is hypothesized that hoards had agency and influenced the lives of people and the society they lived in.It is theorized that hoards with different significance were deposited in different settings, and that this reflect the reason for deposition. It is stated that former research on Viking hoards often focused on one aspect of the hoards. However, the analytic entry in this thesis is that hoards fulfilled many different purposes, and that all parts of the hoard are equally important to the interpretation. P. Bourdieu’s theory on capital and field forms the theoretical frame for a multi-contextual analysis of the hoards relation to the economic, social, cultural and ritual field. All types of objects in hoards are included in the analysis where dataon production, circulation and deposition are interpreted. A biographical perspective is applied to explore the most important stages in the life of objects and hoards: production and circulation, accumulation and deposition. Movements and changes are analysedin a local and regional perspective, and the agency of hoards within power, religion, economics, trade, immigration, cultural change, as well as social network and mobility is discussed. It is concluded: 1) That by using a biographical research approach, it is possible to separate various accumulation strategies such as network, trade and raid, and deposition strategies such as savings, raw material deposits and offerings. 2) That by applying a multi-contextual method the people behind the hoards is revealed as men and women, warrior, traders, silversmiths, peasants and the elite. 3) That hoards were agents in the Viking age power structure of Bornholm, and that hoards created social mobility, were mediators between humans and gods, and were agents in establishing and maintaining local and regional economic and social networks.
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Abstract (Swedish)
Afhandlingens empiriske udgangspunkt er Bornholms vikingetidsskatte (ca. 850-ca. 1150), med særlig fokus på 34 udgravede lokaliteter, der i hidtil uset skala gør det muligt, at inddrage den arkæologiske kontekst i tolkningen af skattenes betydninger. I afhandlingen opstilles tre forskningsspørgsmål: 1) Afspejler skattene de mennesker, der akkumulerede, håndterede og deponerede dem, og er det muligt at identificere de anvendte akkumuleringsstrategier? 2) Er skattenes betydninger reflekteret i den arkæologiske kontekst? 3) Hvilke betydninger havde skattene som aktører i vikingetidens samfund?Afhandlingens grundtanke er, at skattene er formet af menneskers valg og handlinger, og at disse afspejles i skattenes struktur og deponeringskontekst.... (More)
Afhandlingens empiriske udgangspunkt er Bornholms vikingetidsskatte (ca. 850-ca. 1150), med særlig fokus på 34 udgravede lokaliteter, der i hidtil uset skala gør det muligt, at inddrage den arkæologiske kontekst i tolkningen af skattenes betydninger. I afhandlingen opstilles tre forskningsspørgsmål: 1) Afspejler skattene de mennesker, der akkumulerede, håndterede og deponerede dem, og er det muligt at identificere de anvendte akkumuleringsstrategier? 2) Er skattenes betydninger reflekteret i den arkæologiske kontekst? 3) Hvilke betydninger havde skattene som aktører i vikingetidens samfund?Afhandlingens grundtanke er, at skattene er formet af menneskers valg og handlinger, og at disse afspejles i skattenes struktur og deponeringskontekst. Der opstilles den tese, at skatte med uens betydninger deponeredes ud fra forskellige bevæggrunde, og at disse afspejles i deponeringskonteksten, samt at skattene havde agens og påvirkede menneskers liv og det samfund de levede i. Det diskuteres i forskningshistorisk perspektiv, at tidligere forskning ofte fokuserede på ét aspekt ved skattene. Afhandlingens analytiske udgangspunkt er imidlertid, at alle dele af skattene er lige vigtige for tolkningen, og at skattene havde mange forskellige betydninger. P. Bourdieus tankerom kapital og felt anvendes som teoretisk ramme for en multikausal tolkning, hvor skattenes position i det økonomiske, sociale, kulturelle og symbolskefelt belyses.I analysen tolkes produktions-, cirkulations-og deponeringsdata for alle genstandsgrupper. Der anlægges et biografisk perspektiv, der belyser de vigtigste faser i genstandes og skattes biografi: produktion og cirkulation, akkumulering og deponering. Strømninger og forandringer diskuteres i et lokalt og regionalt perspektiv, hvor skattenes agens belyses inden for følgende emner: magt, kristendom, økonomi, handel, indvandring, kulturel forandring samtsocialt netværk og mobilitet. Det konkluderes: 1) at detvia den biografiske analysemodel, der er udviklet i afhandlingen, er muligt, at udskille forskellige akkumuleringsstrategier som netværk, handel og togter, samt deponeringsstrategier som opsparing, råmaterialedepot og offer. 2) at det via den multikontekstuelle metode, der er udviklet i afhandlinger, er muligt, at belyse menneskene bag skattene, der omfatter mænd og kvinder, krigere, handlende, sølvsmede, bønder og elite. 3) at skattene havde agens i Bornholms overordnede magtfelti vikingetiden, at skatteskabte social mobilitet, var mediator mellem mennesker og guder, og var agenter i etablering og vedligehold af økonomiske og sociale netværk lokalt og regionalt.
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Thesis
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published
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656 pages
publisher
Københavns Universitet
language
Danish
LU publication?
no
id
15115ef8-2009-4a24-b8e8-76c241776600
date added to LUP
2020-11-23 18:05:19
date last changed
2020-12-04 16:06:18
@phdthesis{15115ef8-2009-4a24-b8e8-76c241776600,
  abstract     = {The empirical focus of this thesis is the Viking age hoards of Bornholm (c. 850 -c. 1150). Special emphasis is laid on 34 excavated hoard sites, which in unprecedented scale enable us to include the archeological context in the interpretation of Viking age hoards.   Three research questions are asked: 1) Do hoards reflect the persons that accumulated, handled and deposited them, and is it possible to identify accumulation strategies? 2) Is the significance of the hoards reflected in the archaeological context? 3)  How did hoard act as agents in Viking age society? The basic notion applied in this thesis is that hoards are shaped by humans’ choices and actions, and that these are reflected in the composition and deposition of the hoards. Further, it is hypothesized that hoards had agency and influenced the lives of people and the society they lived in.It is theorized that hoards with different significance were deposited in different settings, and that this reflect the reason for deposition. It is stated that former research on Viking hoards often focused on one aspect of the hoards. However, the analytic entry in this thesis is that hoards fulfilled many different purposes, and that all parts of the hoard are equally important to the interpretation. P. Bourdieu’s theory on capital and field forms the theoretical frame for a multi-contextual analysis of the hoards relation to the economic, social, cultural and ritual field. All types of objects in hoards are included in the analysis where dataon production, circulation and deposition are interpreted. A biographical perspective is applied to explore the most important stages in the life of objects and hoards: production and circulation, accumulation and deposition. Movements and changes are analysedin a local and regional perspective, and the agency of hoards within power, religion, economics, trade, immigration, cultural change, as well as social network and mobility is discussed.  It is concluded: 1) That by using a biographical research approach, it is possible to separate various accumulation strategies such as network, trade and raid, and deposition strategies such as savings, raw material deposits and offerings. 2) That by applying a multi-contextual method the people behind the hoards is revealed as men and women, warrior, traders, silversmiths, peasants and the elite. 3) That hoards were agents in the Viking age power structure of Bornholm, and that hoards created social mobility, were mediators between humans and gods, and were agents in establishing and maintaining local and regional economic and social networks.<br/>},
  author       = {Ingvardson, Gitte},
  language     = {dan},
  publisher    = {Københavns Universitet},
  title        = {Vikingeskattenes mennesker: Bornholmske sølvskatte som aktører i det økonomiske, sociale, kulturelle og symbolske felt fra ca. 850 - ca. 1150},
  url          = {https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/ws/files/87185182/Ph.d._afhandling_2020_Ingvardson_Tekst_1_.pdf},
  year         = {2020},
}