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Cystatin E/M suppresses legumain activity and invasion of human melanoma

Briggs, Jon J.; Haugen, Mads H.; Johansen, Harald T.; Riker, Adam I.; Abrahamson, Magnus LU ; Fodstad, Oystein; Maelandsmo, Gunhild M. and Solberg, Rigmor (2010) In BMC Cancer 10.
Abstract
Background: High activity of cysteine proteases such as legumain and the cathepsins have been shown to facilitate growth and invasion of a variety of tumor types. In breast cancer, several recent studies have indicated that loss of the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin E/M leads to increased growth and metastasis. Although cystatin E/M is normally expressed in the skin, its role in cysteine protease regulation and progression of malignant melanoma has not been studied. Methods: A panel of various non-melanoma and melanoma cell lines was used. Cystatin E/M and C were analyzed in cell media by immunoblotting and ELISA. Legumain, cathepsin B and L were analyzed in cell lysates by immunoblotting and their enzymatic activities were analyzed... (More)
Background: High activity of cysteine proteases such as legumain and the cathepsins have been shown to facilitate growth and invasion of a variety of tumor types. In breast cancer, several recent studies have indicated that loss of the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin E/M leads to increased growth and metastasis. Although cystatin E/M is normally expressed in the skin, its role in cysteine protease regulation and progression of malignant melanoma has not been studied. Methods: A panel of various non-melanoma and melanoma cell lines was used. Cystatin E/M and C were analyzed in cell media by immunoblotting and ELISA. Legumain, cathepsin B and L were analyzed in cell lysates by immunoblotting and their enzymatic activities were analyzed by peptide substrates. Two melanoma cell lines lacking detectable secretion of cystatin E/M were transfected with a cystatin E/M expression plasmid (pCST6), and migration and invasiveness were studied by a Matrigel invasion assay. Results: Cystatin E/M was undetectable in media from all established melanoma cell lines examined, whereas strong immunobands were detected in two of five primary melanoma lines and in two of six lines derived from patients with metastatic disease. Among the four melanoma lines secreting cystatin E/M, the glycosylated form (17 kD) was predominant compared to the non-glycosylated form (14 kD). Legumain, cathepsin B and L were expressed and active in most of the cell lines, although at low levels in the melanomas expressing cystatin E/M. In the melanoma lines where cystatin E/M was secreted, cystatin C was generally absent or expressed at a very low level. When melanoma cells lacking secretion of cystatin E/M were transfected with pCST6, their intracellular legumain activity was significantly inhibited. In contrast, cathepsin B activity was not affected. Furthermore, invasion was suppressed in cystatin E/M over-expressing melanoma cell lines as measured by the transwell Matrigel assay. Conclusions: These results suggest that the level of cystatin E/M regulates legumain activity and hence the invasive potential of human melanoma cells. (Less)
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author
organization
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Contribution to journal
publication status
published
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BMC Cancer
volume
10
publisher
BioMed Central
external identifiers
  • wos:000274596900001
  • scopus:76949097013
ISSN
1471-2407
DOI
10.1186/1471-2407-10-17
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
854fac19-0f27-47ac-b826-1b4e6197f5af (old id 1568668)
date added to LUP
2010-03-17 13:43:28
date last changed
2018-06-17 04:40:05
@article{854fac19-0f27-47ac-b826-1b4e6197f5af,
  abstract     = {Background: High activity of cysteine proteases such as legumain and the cathepsins have been shown to facilitate growth and invasion of a variety of tumor types. In breast cancer, several recent studies have indicated that loss of the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin E/M leads to increased growth and metastasis. Although cystatin E/M is normally expressed in the skin, its role in cysteine protease regulation and progression of malignant melanoma has not been studied. Methods: A panel of various non-melanoma and melanoma cell lines was used. Cystatin E/M and C were analyzed in cell media by immunoblotting and ELISA. Legumain, cathepsin B and L were analyzed in cell lysates by immunoblotting and their enzymatic activities were analyzed by peptide substrates. Two melanoma cell lines lacking detectable secretion of cystatin E/M were transfected with a cystatin E/M expression plasmid (pCST6), and migration and invasiveness were studied by a Matrigel invasion assay. Results: Cystatin E/M was undetectable in media from all established melanoma cell lines examined, whereas strong immunobands were detected in two of five primary melanoma lines and in two of six lines derived from patients with metastatic disease. Among the four melanoma lines secreting cystatin E/M, the glycosylated form (17 kD) was predominant compared to the non-glycosylated form (14 kD). Legumain, cathepsin B and L were expressed and active in most of the cell lines, although at low levels in the melanomas expressing cystatin E/M. In the melanoma lines where cystatin E/M was secreted, cystatin C was generally absent or expressed at a very low level. When melanoma cells lacking secretion of cystatin E/M were transfected with pCST6, their intracellular legumain activity was significantly inhibited. In contrast, cathepsin B activity was not affected. Furthermore, invasion was suppressed in cystatin E/M over-expressing melanoma cell lines as measured by the transwell Matrigel assay. Conclusions: These results suggest that the level of cystatin E/M regulates legumain activity and hence the invasive potential of human melanoma cells.},
  author       = {Briggs, Jon J. and Haugen, Mads H. and Johansen, Harald T. and Riker, Adam I. and Abrahamson, Magnus and Fodstad, Oystein and Maelandsmo, Gunhild M. and Solberg, Rigmor},
  issn         = {1471-2407},
  language     = {eng},
  publisher    = {BioMed Central},
  series       = {BMC Cancer},
  title        = {Cystatin E/M suppresses legumain activity and invasion of human melanoma},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-10-17},
  volume       = {10},
  year         = {2010},
}