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Fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

Boffetta, Paolo; Couto, Elisabeth; Wichmann, Janine; Ferrari, Pietro; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Büchner, Frederike L; Key, Tim and Boeing, Heiner, et al. (2010) In Journal of the National Cancer Institute 102(8). p.529-537
Abstract
BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cancer can be prevented by high intake of fruits and vegetables. However, inconsistent results from many studies have not been able to conclusively establish an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to assess relationships between intake of total fruits, total vegetables, and total fruits and vegetables combined and cancer risk during 1992-2000. Detailed information on the dietary habit and lifestyle variables of the cohort was obtained. Cancer incidence and mortality data were ascertained, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence... (More)
BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cancer can be prevented by high intake of fruits and vegetables. However, inconsistent results from many studies have not been able to conclusively establish an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to assess relationships between intake of total fruits, total vegetables, and total fruits and vegetables combined and cancer risk during 1992-2000. Detailed information on the dietary habit and lifestyle variables of the cohort was obtained. Cancer incidence and mortality data were ascertained, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. Analyses were also conducted for cancers associated with tobacco and alcohol after stratification for tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. RESULTS: Of the initial 142 605 men and 335 873 women included in the study, 9604 men and 21 000 women were identified with cancer after a median follow-up of 8.7 years. The crude cancer incidence rates were 7.9 per 1000 person-years in men and 7.1 per 1000 person-years in women. Associations between reduced cancer risk and increased intake of total fruits and vegetables combined and total vegetables for the entire cohort were similar (200 g/d increased intake of fruits and vegetables combined, HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96 to 0.99; 100 g/d increased intake of total vegetables, HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99); intake of fruits showed a weaker inverse association (100 g/d increased intake of total fruits, HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.00). The reduced risk of cancer associated with high vegetable intake was restricted to women (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99). Stratification by alcohol intake suggested a stronger reduction in risk in heavy drinkers and was confined to cancers caused by smoking and alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: A very small inverse association between intake of total fruits and vegetables and cancer risk was observed in this study. Given the small magnitude of the observed associations, caution should be applied in their interpretation. (Less)
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keywords
Neoplasms: epidemiology, Alcohol Drinking: adverse effects, Europe: epidemiology, Neoplasms: prevention & control, Neoplasms: etiology
in
Journal of the National Cancer Institute
volume
102
issue
8
pages
529 - 537
publisher
Oxford University Press
external identifiers
  • wos:000276998800008
  • pmid:20371762
  • scopus:77951633863
ISSN
1460-2105
DOI
10.1093/jnci/djq072
language
English
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yes
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e94933e6-b01a-43de-a6f8-96018ba5c03b (old id 1595483)
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20371762?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2010-05-04 10:32:39
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2017-05-21 04:40:40
@article{e94933e6-b01a-43de-a6f8-96018ba5c03b,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cancer can be prevented by high intake of fruits and vegetables. However, inconsistent results from many studies have not been able to conclusively establish an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to assess relationships between intake of total fruits, total vegetables, and total fruits and vegetables combined and cancer risk during 1992-2000. Detailed information on the dietary habit and lifestyle variables of the cohort was obtained. Cancer incidence and mortality data were ascertained, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. Analyses were also conducted for cancers associated with tobacco and alcohol after stratification for tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. RESULTS: Of the initial 142 605 men and 335 873 women included in the study, 9604 men and 21 000 women were identified with cancer after a median follow-up of 8.7 years. The crude cancer incidence rates were 7.9 per 1000 person-years in men and 7.1 per 1000 person-years in women. Associations between reduced cancer risk and increased intake of total fruits and vegetables combined and total vegetables for the entire cohort were similar (200 g/d increased intake of fruits and vegetables combined, HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96 to 0.99; 100 g/d increased intake of total vegetables, HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99); intake of fruits showed a weaker inverse association (100 g/d increased intake of total fruits, HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.00). The reduced risk of cancer associated with high vegetable intake was restricted to women (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99). Stratification by alcohol intake suggested a stronger reduction in risk in heavy drinkers and was confined to cancers caused by smoking and alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: A very small inverse association between intake of total fruits and vegetables and cancer risk was observed in this study. Given the small magnitude of the observed associations, caution should be applied in their interpretation.},
  author       = {Boffetta, Paolo and Couto, Elisabeth and Wichmann, Janine and Ferrari, Pietro and Trichopoulos, Dimitrios and Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas and van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B and Büchner, Frederike L and Key, Tim and Boeing, Heiner and Nöthlings, Ute and Linseisen, Jakob and Gonzalez, Carlos A and Overvad, Kim and Nielsen, Michael R S and Tjønneland, Anne and Olsen, Anja and Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise and Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine and Morois, Sophie and Lagiou, Pagona and Naska, Androniki and Benetou, Vassiliki and Kaaks, Rudolf and Rohrmann, Sabine and Panico, Salvatore and Sieri, Sabina and Vineis, Paolo and Palli, Domenico and van Gils, Carla H and Peeters, Petra H and Lund, Eiliv and Brustad, Magritt and Engeset, Dagrun and Huerta, José María and Rodríguez, Laudina and Sánchez, Maria-José and Dorronsoro, Miren and Barricarte, Aurelio and Hallmans, Göran and Johansson, Ingegerd and Manjer, Jonas and Sonestedt, Emily and Allen, Naomi E and Bingham, Sheila and Khaw, Kay-Tee and Slimani, Nadia and Jenab, Mazda and Mouw, Traci and Norat, Teresa and Riboli, Elio and Trichopoulou, Antonia},
  issn         = {1460-2105},
  keyword      = {Neoplasms: epidemiology,Alcohol Drinking: adverse effects,Europe: epidemiology,Neoplasms: prevention & control,Neoplasms: etiology},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {529--537},
  publisher    = {Oxford University Press},
  series       = {Journal of the National Cancer Institute},
  title        = {Fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djq072},
  volume       = {102},
  year         = {2010},
}