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Enhanced mitochondrial metabolism may account for the adaptation to insulin resistance in islets from C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet.

Fex, Malin LU ; Dekker Nitert, Marloes LU ; Wierup, Nils LU ; Sundler, Frank LU ; Ling, Charlotte LU and Mulder, Hindrik LU (2007) In Diabetologia 50(1). p.74-83
Abstract
Aim/hypothesis Hyperinsulinaemia maintains euglycaemia in insulin-resistant states. The precise cellular mechanisms by which the beta cells adapt are still unresolved. A peripherally derived cue, such as increased circulating fatty acids, may instruct the beta cell to initiate an adaptive programme to maintain glucose homeostasis. When this fails, type 2 diabetes ensues. Because mitochondria play a key role in beta cell pathophysiology, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial metabolism is critical for beta cell adaptation to insulin resistance.

Methods C57BL/6J mice were given high-fat (HF) diet for 12 weeks. We then analysed islet hormone secretion, metabolism in vivo and in vitro, and beta cell morphology.

Results... (More)
Aim/hypothesis Hyperinsulinaemia maintains euglycaemia in insulin-resistant states. The precise cellular mechanisms by which the beta cells adapt are still unresolved. A peripherally derived cue, such as increased circulating fatty acids, may instruct the beta cell to initiate an adaptive programme to maintain glucose homeostasis. When this fails, type 2 diabetes ensues. Because mitochondria play a key role in beta cell pathophysiology, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial metabolism is critical for beta cell adaptation to insulin resistance.

Methods C57BL/6J mice were given high-fat (HF) diet for 12 weeks. We then analysed islet hormone secretion, metabolism in vivo and in vitro, and beta cell morphology.

Results HF diet resulted in insulin resistance and glucose intolerance but not frank diabetes. Basal insulin secretion was elevated in isolated islets from HF mice with almost no additional response provoked by high glucose. In contrast, a strong secretory response was seen when islets from HF mice were stimulated with fuels that require mitochondrial metabolism, such as glutamate, glutamine, alpha-ketoisocaproic acid and succinate. Moreover, while glucose oxidation was impaired in islets from HF mice, oxidation of glutamine and palmitate was enhanced. Ultrastructural analysis of islets in HF mice revealed an accumulation of lipid droplets in beta cells and a twofold increase in mitochondrial area.

Conclusions/interpretation We propose that beta cells exposed to increased lipid flux in insulin resistance respond by increasing mitochondrial volume. This expansion is associated with enhanced mitochondrial metabolism as a means of beta cell compensation.

Electronic supplementary material Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-006-0464-4 and is accessible to authorised users. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
High-fat diet, Type 2 diabetes, Insulin resistance, Mitochondrial metabolism
in
Diabetologia
volume
50
issue
1
pages
74 - 83
publisher
Springer Verlag
external identifiers
  • wos:000243188000013
  • scopus:33845934827
ISSN
1432-0428
DOI
10.1007/s00125-006-0464-4
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
4569dd79-74bc-4dce-8ed1-c5257fc2c8d2 (old id 163326)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=17093947&dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2007-07-12 10:43:58
date last changed
2017-09-24 03:43:35
@article{4569dd79-74bc-4dce-8ed1-c5257fc2c8d2,
  abstract     = {Aim/hypothesis Hyperinsulinaemia maintains euglycaemia in insulin-resistant states. The precise cellular mechanisms by which the beta cells adapt are still unresolved. A peripherally derived cue, such as increased circulating fatty acids, may instruct the beta cell to initiate an adaptive programme to maintain glucose homeostasis. When this fails, type 2 diabetes ensues. Because mitochondria play a key role in beta cell pathophysiology, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial metabolism is critical for beta cell adaptation to insulin resistance.<br/><br>
Methods C57BL/6J mice were given high-fat (HF) diet for 12 weeks. We then analysed islet hormone secretion, metabolism in vivo and in vitro, and beta cell morphology.<br/><br>
Results HF diet resulted in insulin resistance and glucose intolerance but not frank diabetes. Basal insulin secretion was elevated in isolated islets from HF mice with almost no additional response provoked by high glucose. In contrast, a strong secretory response was seen when islets from HF mice were stimulated with fuels that require mitochondrial metabolism, such as glutamate, glutamine, alpha-ketoisocaproic acid and succinate. Moreover, while glucose oxidation was impaired in islets from HF mice, oxidation of glutamine and palmitate was enhanced. Ultrastructural analysis of islets in HF mice revealed an accumulation of lipid droplets in beta cells and a twofold increase in mitochondrial area.<br/><br>
Conclusions/interpretation We propose that beta cells exposed to increased lipid flux in insulin resistance respond by increasing mitochondrial volume. This expansion is associated with enhanced mitochondrial metabolism as a means of beta cell compensation.<br/><br>
Electronic supplementary material Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-006-0464-4 and is accessible to authorised users.},
  author       = {Fex, Malin and Dekker Nitert, Marloes and Wierup, Nils and Sundler, Frank and Ling, Charlotte and Mulder, Hindrik},
  issn         = {1432-0428},
  keyword      = {High-fat diet,Type 2 diabetes,Insulin resistance,Mitochondrial metabolism},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {74--83},
  publisher    = {Springer Verlag},
  series       = {Diabetologia},
  title        = {Enhanced mitochondrial metabolism may account for the adaptation to insulin resistance in islets from C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-006-0464-4},
  volume       = {50},
  year         = {2007},
}