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Regeneration and plasticity in the brain and spinal cord.

Johansson, Barbro LU (2007) In Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 27(8). p.1417-1430
Abstract
The concept of brain plasticity covers all the mechanisms involved in the capacity of the brain to adjust and remodel itself in response to environmental requirements, experience, skill acquisition, and new challenges including brain lesions. Advances in neuroimaging and neurophysiologic techniques have increased our knowledge of task-related changes in cortical representation areas in the intact and injured human brain. The recognition that neuronal progenitor cells proliferate and differentiate in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus in the adult mammalian brain has raised the hope that regeneration may be possible after brain lesions. Regeneration will require that new cells differentiate, survive, and integrate into existing... (More)
The concept of brain plasticity covers all the mechanisms involved in the capacity of the brain to adjust and remodel itself in response to environmental requirements, experience, skill acquisition, and new challenges including brain lesions. Advances in neuroimaging and neurophysiologic techniques have increased our knowledge of task-related changes in cortical representation areas in the intact and injured human brain. The recognition that neuronal progenitor cells proliferate and differentiate in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus in the adult mammalian brain has raised the hope that regeneration may be possible after brain lesions. Regeneration will require that new cells differentiate, survive, and integrate into existing neural networks and that axons regenerate. To what extent this will be possible is difficult to predict. Current research explores the possibilities to modify endogenous neurogenesis and facilitate axonal regeneration using myelin inhibitory factors. After apoptotic damage in mice new cortical neurons can form long-distance connections. Progenitor cells from the subventricular zone migrate to cortical and subcortical regions after ischemic brain lesions, apparently directed by signals from the damaged region. Postmortem studies on human brains suggest that neurogenesis may be altered in degenerative diseases. Functional and anatomic data indicate that myelin inhibitory factors, cell implantation, and modification of extracellular matrix may be beneficial after spinal cord lesions. Neurophysiologic data demonstrating that new connections are functioning are needed to prove regeneration. Even if not achieving the goal, methods aimed at regeneration can be beneficial by enhancing plasticity in intact brain regions. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
focal brain ischemia, neurogenesis, olfactory ensheathing cells, myelin inhibitory factors, axonal regeneration
in
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
volume
27
issue
8
pages
1417 - 1430
publisher
Nature Publishing Group
external identifiers
  • wos:000248266700001
  • scopus:34547093613
ISSN
1559-7016
DOI
10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600486
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
6fef7e2a-18e8-4cf0-96c1-c95157022810 (old id 166180)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=17392690&dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2007-07-16 09:27:41
date last changed
2017-02-26 04:21:10
@article{6fef7e2a-18e8-4cf0-96c1-c95157022810,
  abstract     = {The concept of brain plasticity covers all the mechanisms involved in the capacity of the brain to adjust and remodel itself in response to environmental requirements, experience, skill acquisition, and new challenges including brain lesions. Advances in neuroimaging and neurophysiologic techniques have increased our knowledge of task-related changes in cortical representation areas in the intact and injured human brain. The recognition that neuronal progenitor cells proliferate and differentiate in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus in the adult mammalian brain has raised the hope that regeneration may be possible after brain lesions. Regeneration will require that new cells differentiate, survive, and integrate into existing neural networks and that axons regenerate. To what extent this will be possible is difficult to predict. Current research explores the possibilities to modify endogenous neurogenesis and facilitate axonal regeneration using myelin inhibitory factors. After apoptotic damage in mice new cortical neurons can form long-distance connections. Progenitor cells from the subventricular zone migrate to cortical and subcortical regions after ischemic brain lesions, apparently directed by signals from the damaged region. Postmortem studies on human brains suggest that neurogenesis may be altered in degenerative diseases. Functional and anatomic data indicate that myelin inhibitory factors, cell implantation, and modification of extracellular matrix may be beneficial after spinal cord lesions. Neurophysiologic data demonstrating that new connections are functioning are needed to prove regeneration. Even if not achieving the goal, methods aimed at regeneration can be beneficial by enhancing plasticity in intact brain regions.},
  author       = {Johansson, Barbro},
  issn         = {1559-7016},
  keyword      = {focal brain ischemia,neurogenesis,olfactory ensheathing cells,myelin inhibitory factors,axonal regeneration},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {1417--1430},
  publisher    = {Nature Publishing Group},
  series       = {Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism},
  title        = {Regeneration and plasticity in the brain and spinal cord.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600486},
  volume       = {27},
  year         = {2007},
}