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Do sex hormones influence features of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women? A population-based study of Swedish women: The Women's Health in the Lund Area (WHILA) Study.

Shakir, Yasameen LU ; Samsioe, Göran LU ; Nyberg, Per LU ; Lidfeldt, Jonas LU ; Nerbrand, Christina LU and Agardh, Carl-David LU (2007) In Fertility and Sterility 88(1). p.163-171
Abstract
Objective: To outline perceived associations between various sex hormones and risk markers for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged women, with an emphasis on features of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Women's Health in the Lund Area Study. Patient(s): Population-based cohort. Intervention(s): A generic questionnaire, physical examinations, and laboratory assessments were completed by 6,917 women aged 50-59 years living in the Lund area of southern Sweden. Women at or above defined cutoff limits for the MS were considered positively screened. After exclusion of women using hormone therapy (HT), 2,038 women with (MS+) and 2,054 women without features of the MS (MS-) were included. The ELISA... (More)
Objective: To outline perceived associations between various sex hormones and risk markers for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged women, with an emphasis on features of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Women's Health in the Lund Area Study. Patient(s): Population-based cohort. Intervention(s): A generic questionnaire, physical examinations, and laboratory assessments were completed by 6,917 women aged 50-59 years living in the Lund area of southern Sweden. Women at or above defined cutoff limits for the MS were considered positively screened. After exclusion of women using hormone therapy (HT), 2,038 women with (MS+) and 2,054 women without features of the MS (MS-) were included. The ELISA techniques were used for the determination of serum androstendione (A), E-2, T, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), cortisol, insulin, and leptin levels. Serum lipids and lipoproteins were determined by conventional methods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking habits. Main Outcome Measure(s): Features of the MS, sex steroids, cardiovascular risk markers. Result(s): In the MS+ group, a positive association was seen between A and systolic blood pressure. Estradiol was negatively associated with total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure. The SHBG was negatively associated with triglycerides, blood glucose, and diastolic blood pressure and positively with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In the MS- group, there were positive associations between A, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure. Testosterone was positively associated with HDL. Estradiol was negatively associated with total cholesterol and positively with systolic blood pressure. The SHBG was positively associated with HDL and negatively with triglycerides and diastolic blood pressure. There were positive associations between cortisol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure and a negative association with triglycerides in both MS+ and MS- groups. Conclusion(s): Androstendione, E-2, and T levels were associated with cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged women. Effects by sex steroids on cardiovascular risk markers seem to be different in women with or without features of the MS. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
cortisol, SHBG, Metabolic syndrome, sex hormones, middle-aged women
in
Fertility and Sterility
volume
88
issue
1
pages
163 - 171
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000248054100025
  • scopus:34347227105
ISSN
1556-5653
DOI
10.1016/j.fertnstert.2006.11.111
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
87816e4b-c0b5-40bc-afe4-ee1cbdd38141 (old id 166237)
date added to LUP
2007-07-23 16:15:29
date last changed
2017-01-01 04:31:15
@article{87816e4b-c0b5-40bc-afe4-ee1cbdd38141,
  abstract     = {Objective: To outline perceived associations between various sex hormones and risk markers for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged women, with an emphasis on features of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Women's Health in the Lund Area Study. Patient(s): Population-based cohort. Intervention(s): A generic questionnaire, physical examinations, and laboratory assessments were completed by 6,917 women aged 50-59 years living in the Lund area of southern Sweden. Women at or above defined cutoff limits for the MS were considered positively screened. After exclusion of women using hormone therapy (HT), 2,038 women with (MS+) and 2,054 women without features of the MS (MS-) were included. The ELISA techniques were used for the determination of serum androstendione (A), E-2, T, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), cortisol, insulin, and leptin levels. Serum lipids and lipoproteins were determined by conventional methods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking habits. Main Outcome Measure(s): Features of the MS, sex steroids, cardiovascular risk markers. Result(s): In the MS+ group, a positive association was seen between A and systolic blood pressure. Estradiol was negatively associated with total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure. The SHBG was negatively associated with triglycerides, blood glucose, and diastolic blood pressure and positively with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In the MS- group, there were positive associations between A, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure. Testosterone was positively associated with HDL. Estradiol was negatively associated with total cholesterol and positively with systolic blood pressure. The SHBG was positively associated with HDL and negatively with triglycerides and diastolic blood pressure. There were positive associations between cortisol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure and a negative association with triglycerides in both MS+ and MS- groups. Conclusion(s): Androstendione, E-2, and T levels were associated with cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged women. Effects by sex steroids on cardiovascular risk markers seem to be different in women with or without features of the MS.},
  author       = {Shakir, Yasameen and Samsioe, Göran and Nyberg, Per and Lidfeldt, Jonas and Nerbrand, Christina and Agardh, Carl-David},
  issn         = {1556-5653},
  keyword      = {cortisol,SHBG,Metabolic syndrome,sex hormones,middle-aged women},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {163--171},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Fertility and Sterility},
  title        = {Do sex hormones influence features of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women? A population-based study of Swedish women: The Women's Health in the Lund Area (WHILA) Study.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2006.11.111},
  volume       = {88},
  year         = {2007},
}