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Vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in mice retinal vessels is affected by both hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia.

Gustavsson, Carin LU ; Agardh, Carl-David LU ; Zetterqvist, Anna LU ; Nilsson, Jan LU ; Agardh, Elisabet LU and Gomez, Maria LU (2010) In PLoS One 5(9).
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been proposed to be important in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. An early feature of inflammation is the release of cytokines leading to increased expression of endothelial activation markers such as vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Here we investigated the impact of diabetes and dyslipidemia on VCAM-1 expression in mouse retinal vessels, as well as the potential role of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Expression of VCAM-1 was examined by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy in vessels of wild type (wt), hyperlipidemic (ApoE(-/-)) and TNFα deficient (TNFα(-/-), ApoE(-/-)/TNFα(-/-)) mice. Eight weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in... (More)
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been proposed to be important in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. An early feature of inflammation is the release of cytokines leading to increased expression of endothelial activation markers such as vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Here we investigated the impact of diabetes and dyslipidemia on VCAM-1 expression in mouse retinal vessels, as well as the potential role of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Expression of VCAM-1 was examined by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy in vessels of wild type (wt), hyperlipidemic (ApoE(-/-)) and TNFα deficient (TNFα(-/-), ApoE(-/-)/TNFα(-/-)) mice. Eight weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in increased VCAM-1 in wt mice, predominantly in small vessels (<10 µm). Diabetic wt mice had higher total retinal TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA than controls; as well as higher soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) in plasma. Lack of TNFα increased higher basal VCAM-1 protein and sVCAM-1, but failed to up-regulate IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA and VCAM-1 protein in response to diabetes. Basal VCAM-1 expression was higher in ApoE(-/-) than in wt mice and both VCAM-1 mRNA and protein levels were further increased by high fat diet. These changes correlated to plasma cholesterol, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, but not to triglycerides levels. Diabetes, despite further increasing plasma cholesterol in ApoE(-/-) mice, had no effects on VCAM-1 protein expression or on sVCAM-1. However, it increased ICAM-1 mRNA expression in retinal vessels, which correlated to plasma triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hyperglycemia triggers an inflammatory response in the retina of normolipidemic mice and up-regulation of VCAM-1 in retinal vessels. Hypercholesterolemia effectively promotes VCAM-1 expression without evident stimulation of inflammation. Diabetes-induced endothelial activation in ApoE(-/-) mice seems driven by elevated plasma triglycerides but not by cholesterol. Results also suggest a complex role for TNFα in the regulation of VCAM-1 expression, being protective under basal conditions but pro-inflammatory in response to diabetes. (Less)
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author
organization
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type
Contribution to journal
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published
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in
PLoS One
volume
5
issue
9
publisher
Public Library of Science
external identifiers
  • WOS:000281735700017
  • PMID:20856927
  • Scopus:77958573925
ISSN
1932-6203
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0012699
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
b5dc33e4-3ef6-4962-8815-05e3b12f5ff2 (old id 1688030)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20856927?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2010-10-07 17:51:38
date last changed
2017-01-01 07:53:46
@article{b5dc33e4-3ef6-4962-8815-05e3b12f5ff2,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been proposed to be important in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. An early feature of inflammation is the release of cytokines leading to increased expression of endothelial activation markers such as vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Here we investigated the impact of diabetes and dyslipidemia on VCAM-1 expression in mouse retinal vessels, as well as the potential role of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Expression of VCAM-1 was examined by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy in vessels of wild type (wt), hyperlipidemic (ApoE(-/-)) and TNFα deficient (TNFα(-/-), ApoE(-/-)/TNFα(-/-)) mice. Eight weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in increased VCAM-1 in wt mice, predominantly in small vessels (&lt;10 µm). Diabetic wt mice had higher total retinal TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA than controls; as well as higher soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) in plasma. Lack of TNFα increased higher basal VCAM-1 protein and sVCAM-1, but failed to up-regulate IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA and VCAM-1 protein in response to diabetes. Basal VCAM-1 expression was higher in ApoE(-/-) than in wt mice and both VCAM-1 mRNA and protein levels were further increased by high fat diet. These changes correlated to plasma cholesterol, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, but not to triglycerides levels. Diabetes, despite further increasing plasma cholesterol in ApoE(-/-) mice, had no effects on VCAM-1 protein expression or on sVCAM-1. However, it increased ICAM-1 mRNA expression in retinal vessels, which correlated to plasma triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hyperglycemia triggers an inflammatory response in the retina of normolipidemic mice and up-regulation of VCAM-1 in retinal vessels. Hypercholesterolemia effectively promotes VCAM-1 expression without evident stimulation of inflammation. Diabetes-induced endothelial activation in ApoE(-/-) mice seems driven by elevated plasma triglycerides but not by cholesterol. Results also suggest a complex role for TNFα in the regulation of VCAM-1 expression, being protective under basal conditions but pro-inflammatory in response to diabetes.},
  articleno    = {e12699},
  author       = {Gustavsson, Carin and Agardh, Carl-David and Zetterqvist, Anna and Nilsson, Jan and Agardh, Elisabet and Gomez, Maria},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  publisher    = {Public Library of Science},
  series       = {PLoS One},
  title        = {Vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in mice retinal vessels is affected by both hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012699},
  volume       = {5},
  year         = {2010},
}