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Generation and characterization of stable, highly concentrated titanium dioxide nanoparticle aerosols for rodent inhalation studies

Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Biswas, Pratim; Messing, Maria LU ; Gibson, Neil; Geiser, Marianne; Wenk, Alexander; Sahu, Manoranjan; Deppert, Knut LU ; Cydzik, Izabela and Wigge, Christoph, et al. (2011) In Journal of Nanoparticle Research 13(2). p.511-524
Abstract
The intensive use of nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles in many different applications necessitates studies on their risk assessment as there are still open questions on their safe handling and utilization. For reliable risk assessment, the interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) with biological systems ideally needs to be investigated using physico-chemically uniform and well-characterized NP. In this article, we describe the reproducible production of TiO2 NP aerosols using spark ignition technology. Because currently no data are available on inhaled NP in the 10-50 nm diameter range, the emphasis was to generate NP as small as 20 nm for inhalation studies in rodents. For anticipated in vivo dosimetry analyses, TiO2 NP were... (More)
The intensive use of nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles in many different applications necessitates studies on their risk assessment as there are still open questions on their safe handling and utilization. For reliable risk assessment, the interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) with biological systems ideally needs to be investigated using physico-chemically uniform and well-characterized NP. In this article, we describe the reproducible production of TiO2 NP aerosols using spark ignition technology. Because currently no data are available on inhaled NP in the 10-50 nm diameter range, the emphasis was to generate NP as small as 20 nm for inhalation studies in rodents. For anticipated in vivo dosimetry analyses, TiO2 NP were radiolabeled with V-48 by proton irradiation of the titanium electrodes of the spark generator. The dissolution rate of the V-48 label was about 1% within the first day. The highly concentrated, polydisperse TiO2 NP aerosol (3-6 x 10(6) cm(-3)) proved to be constant over several hours in terms of its count median mobility diameter, its geometric standard deviation, and number concentration. Extensive characterization of NP chemical composition, physical structure, morphology, and specific surface area was performed. The originally generated amorphous TiO2 NP were converted into crystalline anatase TiO2 NP by thermal annealing at 950 A degrees C. Both crystalline and amorphous 20-nm TiO2 NP were chain agglomerated/aggregated, consisting of primary particles in the range of 5 nm. Disintegration of the deposited TiO2 NP in lung tissue was not detectable within 24 h. (Less)
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keywords
Titanium dioxide, Anatase, Amorphous TiO2, Spark ignition, Chain, aggregate/agglomerate, Nanoparticle generation, Transmission electron, microscopy, Elemental microanalysis, Electron tomography, Environmental, health and safety (EHS)
in
Journal of Nanoparticle Research
volume
13
issue
2
pages
511 - 524
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • wos:000287860200008
  • scopus:79956155517
ISSN
1572-896X
DOI
10.1007/s11051-010-0081-5
language
English
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yes
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6e659f06-0f7a-4251-bd01-cb672f660963 (old id 1869160)
date added to LUP
2011-04-06 13:30:55
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2017-07-02 03:22:54
@article{6e659f06-0f7a-4251-bd01-cb672f660963,
  abstract     = {The intensive use of nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles in many different applications necessitates studies on their risk assessment as there are still open questions on their safe handling and utilization. For reliable risk assessment, the interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) with biological systems ideally needs to be investigated using physico-chemically uniform and well-characterized NP. In this article, we describe the reproducible production of TiO2 NP aerosols using spark ignition technology. Because currently no data are available on inhaled NP in the 10-50 nm diameter range, the emphasis was to generate NP as small as 20 nm for inhalation studies in rodents. For anticipated in vivo dosimetry analyses, TiO2 NP were radiolabeled with V-48 by proton irradiation of the titanium electrodes of the spark generator. The dissolution rate of the V-48 label was about 1% within the first day. The highly concentrated, polydisperse TiO2 NP aerosol (3-6 x 10(6) cm(-3)) proved to be constant over several hours in terms of its count median mobility diameter, its geometric standard deviation, and number concentration. Extensive characterization of NP chemical composition, physical structure, morphology, and specific surface area was performed. The originally generated amorphous TiO2 NP were converted into crystalline anatase TiO2 NP by thermal annealing at 950 A degrees C. Both crystalline and amorphous 20-nm TiO2 NP were chain agglomerated/aggregated, consisting of primary particles in the range of 5 nm. Disintegration of the deposited TiO2 NP in lung tissue was not detectable within 24 h.},
  author       = {Kreyling, Wolfgang G. and Biswas, Pratim and Messing, Maria and Gibson, Neil and Geiser, Marianne and Wenk, Alexander and Sahu, Manoranjan and Deppert, Knut and Cydzik, Izabela and Wigge, Christoph and Schmid, Otmar and Semmler-Behnke, Manuela},
  issn         = {1572-896X},
  keyword      = {Titanium dioxide,Anatase,Amorphous TiO2,Spark ignition,Chain,aggregate/agglomerate,Nanoparticle generation,Transmission electron,microscopy,Elemental microanalysis,Electron tomography,Environmental,health and safety (EHS)},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {511--524},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Journal of Nanoparticle Research},
  title        = {Generation and characterization of stable, highly concentrated titanium dioxide nanoparticle aerosols for rodent inhalation studies},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11051-010-0081-5},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {2011},
}