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Proliferation, migration and differentiation of ependymal region neural progenitor cells in the brainstem after hypoglossal nerve avulsion

Fagerlund, Michael; Jaff, Nasren; Danilov, Alexandre LU ; Peredo, Inti; Brundin, Lou and Svensson, Mikael (2011) In Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience 29(1). p.47-59
Abstract
Purpose: Cells in the ependymal region in the adult central nervous system (CNS) have been found to possess neural progenitor cell (NPC) like features including capacity for generating new neurons and glia in response to injury and inflammatory disease. Whether these cells are activated after a peripheral nerve injury has not previously been extensively evaluated. Methods: We investigate the possible activation and effect of NPCs in the ependymal region in the immediate vicinity to the hypoglossal nucleus in the brainstem using two models of injuries, hypoglossal nerve transection and nerve avulsion after which the proliferation, migration and differentiation of ependymal regional NPCs were evaluated. Results: We showed that: (i)... (More)
Purpose: Cells in the ependymal region in the adult central nervous system (CNS) have been found to possess neural progenitor cell (NPC) like features including capacity for generating new neurons and glia in response to injury and inflammatory disease. Whether these cells are activated after a peripheral nerve injury has not previously been extensively evaluated. Methods: We investigate the possible activation and effect of NPCs in the ependymal region in the immediate vicinity to the hypoglossal nucleus in the brainstem using two models of injuries, hypoglossal nerve transection and nerve avulsion after which the proliferation, migration and differentiation of ependymal regional NPCs were evaluated. Results: We showed that: (i) immunoreactivity for Sox2 was detected in cells in the ependymal region of the brainstem and that BrdU/Sox2-positive cells were observed after avulsion, but not after transection injury; (ii) avulsion induces re-expression of nestin in the ependymal layer as well as induced NPC migration from the ependymal layer; (iii) the chemokine SDF-1 alpha (a marker for migrating cells) was upregulated ipsilateral to the nerve injury; (iiii) the NPCs migrating differentiated only into GFAP-positive astrocytes in the hypoglossal nucleus. Conclusion: These results suggest that nerve avulsion injury induces in parallel with the retrograde "axon reaction" activation of endogenous NPCs in the ependymal region and further suggest that these cells could be involved in repair and neuroregeneration after injury within the brainstem. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Ependymal cells, peripheral nerve injury, avulsion, astrocytes
in
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
volume
29
issue
1
pages
47 - 59
publisher
IOS Press
external identifiers
  • wos:000287476200005
  • scopus:79951918128
ISSN
1878-3627
DOI
10.3233/RNN-2011-0578
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
3d46e89e-93f8-49fa-b634-f5709a4536fb (old id 1876917)
date added to LUP
2011-04-01 10:57:12
date last changed
2017-01-01 06:13:20
@article{3d46e89e-93f8-49fa-b634-f5709a4536fb,
  abstract     = {Purpose: Cells in the ependymal region in the adult central nervous system (CNS) have been found to possess neural progenitor cell (NPC) like features including capacity for generating new neurons and glia in response to injury and inflammatory disease. Whether these cells are activated after a peripheral nerve injury has not previously been extensively evaluated. Methods: We investigate the possible activation and effect of NPCs in the ependymal region in the immediate vicinity to the hypoglossal nucleus in the brainstem using two models of injuries, hypoglossal nerve transection and nerve avulsion after which the proliferation, migration and differentiation of ependymal regional NPCs were evaluated. Results: We showed that: (i) immunoreactivity for Sox2 was detected in cells in the ependymal region of the brainstem and that BrdU/Sox2-positive cells were observed after avulsion, but not after transection injury; (ii) avulsion induces re-expression of nestin in the ependymal layer as well as induced NPC migration from the ependymal layer; (iii) the chemokine SDF-1 alpha (a marker for migrating cells) was upregulated ipsilateral to the nerve injury; (iiii) the NPCs migrating differentiated only into GFAP-positive astrocytes in the hypoglossal nucleus. Conclusion: These results suggest that nerve avulsion injury induces in parallel with the retrograde "axon reaction" activation of endogenous NPCs in the ependymal region and further suggest that these cells could be involved in repair and neuroregeneration after injury within the brainstem.},
  author       = {Fagerlund, Michael and Jaff, Nasren and Danilov, Alexandre and Peredo, Inti and Brundin, Lou and Svensson, Mikael},
  issn         = {1878-3627},
  keyword      = {Ependymal cells,peripheral nerve injury,avulsion,astrocytes},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {47--59},
  publisher    = {IOS Press},
  series       = {Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience},
  title        = {Proliferation, migration and differentiation of ependymal region neural progenitor cells in the brainstem after hypoglossal nerve avulsion},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/RNN-2011-0578},
  volume       = {29},
  year         = {2011},
}