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Potential fresh water saving using greywater in toilet flushing in Syria.

Mourad, Khaldoon A. LU ; Czemiel Berndtsson, Justyna LU and Berndtsson, Ronny LU (2011) In Journal of Environmental Management 92(10). p.2447-2453
Abstract
Greywater reuse is becoming an increasingly important factor for potable water saving in many countries. Syria is one of the most water scarce countries in the Middle East. However, greywater reuse is still not common in the country. Regulations and standards for greywater reuse are not available. Recently, however, several stakeholders have started to plan for greywater reuse. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for potable water saving by using greywater for toilet flushing in a typical Syrian city. The Sweida city in the southern part of Syria was chosen for this purpose. Interviews were made in order to reflect the social acceptance, water consumption, and the percentage of different indoor water uses. An... (More)
Greywater reuse is becoming an increasingly important factor for potable water saving in many countries. Syria is one of the most water scarce countries in the Middle East. However, greywater reuse is still not common in the country. Regulations and standards for greywater reuse are not available. Recently, however, several stakeholders have started to plan for greywater reuse. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for potable water saving by using greywater for toilet flushing in a typical Syrian city. The Sweida city in the southern part of Syria was chosen for this purpose. Interviews were made in order to reflect the social acceptance, water consumption, and the percentage of different indoor water uses. An artificial wetland (AW) and a commercial bio filter (CBF) were proposed to treat the greywater, and an economic analysis was performed for the treatment system. Results show that using treated greywater for toilet flushing would save about 35% of the drinking water. The economic analyses of the two proposed systems showed that, in the current water tariff, the payback period for AW and CBF in block systems is 7 and 52 years, respectively. However, this period will reduce to 3 and 21 years, respectively, if full water costs are paid by beneficiaries. Hence, introducing artificial wetlands in order to make greywater use efficient appears to be a viable alternative to save potable water. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Journal of Environmental Management
volume
92
issue
10
pages
2447 - 2453
publisher
Academic Press
external identifiers
  • wos:000294585900013
  • pmid:21621904
  • scopus:79960842305
ISSN
0301-4797
DOI
10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.05.004
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
51e8ed69-74f1-4972-962a-4864869242f4 (old id 1971944)
date added to LUP
2011-06-09 10:05:31
date last changed
2017-10-08 03:09:19
@article{51e8ed69-74f1-4972-962a-4864869242f4,
  abstract     = {Greywater reuse is becoming an increasingly important factor for potable water saving in many countries. Syria is one of the most water scarce countries in the Middle East. However, greywater reuse is still not common in the country. Regulations and standards for greywater reuse are not available. Recently, however, several stakeholders have started to plan for greywater reuse. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for potable water saving by using greywater for toilet flushing in a typical Syrian city. The Sweida city in the southern part of Syria was chosen for this purpose. Interviews were made in order to reflect the social acceptance, water consumption, and the percentage of different indoor water uses. An artificial wetland (AW) and a commercial bio filter (CBF) were proposed to treat the greywater, and an economic analysis was performed for the treatment system. Results show that using treated greywater for toilet flushing would save about 35% of the drinking water. The economic analyses of the two proposed systems showed that, in the current water tariff, the payback period for AW and CBF in block systems is 7 and 52 years, respectively. However, this period will reduce to 3 and 21 years, respectively, if full water costs are paid by beneficiaries. Hence, introducing artificial wetlands in order to make greywater use efficient appears to be a viable alternative to save potable water.},
  author       = {Mourad, Khaldoon A. and Czemiel Berndtsson, Justyna and Berndtsson, Ronny},
  issn         = {0301-4797},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {2447--2453},
  publisher    = {Academic Press},
  series       = {Journal of Environmental Management},
  title        = {Potential fresh water saving using greywater in toilet flushing in Syria.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.05.004},
  volume       = {92},
  year         = {2011},
}