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Climate-induced input of turbid glacial meltwater affects vertical distribution and community composition of phyto- and zooplankton

Hylander, Samuel LU ; Jephson, Therese LU ; Lebret, Karen LU ; von Einem, Jessica LU ; Fagerberg, Tony LU ; Balseiro, Esteban; Modenutti, Beatriz; Sol Souza, Maria; Laspoumaderes, Cecilia and Jönsson, Mikael LU , et al. (2011) In Journal of Plankton Research 33(8). p.1239-1248
Abstract
Receding glaciers are among the most obvious changes caused by global warming, and glacial meltwater entering lakes generally forms plumes of particles. By taking vertical samples along a horizontal gradient from such a particle source, we found that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) attenuated 20-25% faster close to the inflow of suspended particles compared with the more transparent part of the gradient. All sampled stations had a deep chlorophyll a (Chl a) maximum at 15-20 m which was more distinct in the transparent part of the horizontal gradient. Picocyanobacteria increased in abundance in more transparent water and their numbers were tightly correlated with the intensity of the deep Chl a... (More)
Receding glaciers are among the most obvious changes caused by global warming, and glacial meltwater entering lakes generally forms plumes of particles. By taking vertical samples along a horizontal gradient from such a particle source, we found that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) attenuated 20-25% faster close to the inflow of suspended particles compared with the more transparent part of the gradient. All sampled stations had a deep chlorophyll a (Chl a) maximum at 15-20 m which was more distinct in the transparent part of the horizontal gradient. Picocyanobacteria increased in abundance in more transparent water and their numbers were tightly correlated with the intensity of the deep Chl a maxima. Motile species of phytoplankton had a deeper depth distribution in transparent versus less transparent water. Yet other species, like Chrysochromulina parva, that can withstand high PAR intensities and low nutrient concentrations, increased in abundance as the water became more transparent. Also copepods increased in abundance, indicating that they are more successful in transparent water. We conclude that sediment input into lakes creates horizontal gradients in PAR and UVR attenuation which strongly affect both distribution and behavior of phyto-and zooplankton. The input of glacial flour creates a sub-habitat that can function as a refuge for species that are sensitive to high PAR and UVR exposure. When the glacier has vanished, this habitat may disappear. During the melting period, with heavy sediment input, we predict that competitive species in transparent waters, like Chrysocromulina, picocyanobacteria and copepods, will become less common. The deep Chl a maxima is also likely to become less developed. Hence, glacier melting will probably have profound effects on both species composition and behavior of several planktonic taxa with potential effects on the food web. (Less)
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organization
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type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
glacier melting, transparency, zooplankton, phytoplankton, community, composition, vertical migration, UVR, PAR
in
Journal of Plankton Research
volume
33
issue
8
pages
1239 - 1248
publisher
Oxford University Press
external identifiers
  • wos:000292566100007
  • scopus:79960376144
ISSN
0142-7873
DOI
10.1093/plankt/fbr025
project
CAnMove
BECC
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
073ba6bb-ee73-4dcb-a215-3e854f431208 (old id 2094032)
date added to LUP
2011-08-25 11:29:58
date last changed
2017-11-12 03:37:59
@article{073ba6bb-ee73-4dcb-a215-3e854f431208,
  abstract     = {Receding glaciers are among the most obvious changes caused by global warming, and glacial meltwater entering lakes generally forms plumes of particles. By taking vertical samples along a horizontal gradient from such a particle source, we found that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) attenuated 20-25% faster close to the inflow of suspended particles compared with the more transparent part of the gradient. All sampled stations had a deep chlorophyll a (Chl a) maximum at 15-20 m which was more distinct in the transparent part of the horizontal gradient. Picocyanobacteria increased in abundance in more transparent water and their numbers were tightly correlated with the intensity of the deep Chl a maxima. Motile species of phytoplankton had a deeper depth distribution in transparent versus less transparent water. Yet other species, like Chrysochromulina parva, that can withstand high PAR intensities and low nutrient concentrations, increased in abundance as the water became more transparent. Also copepods increased in abundance, indicating that they are more successful in transparent water. We conclude that sediment input into lakes creates horizontal gradients in PAR and UVR attenuation which strongly affect both distribution and behavior of phyto-and zooplankton. The input of glacial flour creates a sub-habitat that can function as a refuge for species that are sensitive to high PAR and UVR exposure. When the glacier has vanished, this habitat may disappear. During the melting period, with heavy sediment input, we predict that competitive species in transparent waters, like Chrysocromulina, picocyanobacteria and copepods, will become less common. The deep Chl a maxima is also likely to become less developed. Hence, glacier melting will probably have profound effects on both species composition and behavior of several planktonic taxa with potential effects on the food web.},
  author       = {Hylander, Samuel and Jephson, Therese and Lebret, Karen and von Einem, Jessica and Fagerberg, Tony and Balseiro, Esteban and Modenutti, Beatriz and Sol Souza, Maria and Laspoumaderes, Cecilia and Jönsson, Mikael and Ljungberg, Peter and Nicolle, Alice and Nilsson, Per Anders and Ranåker, Lynn and Hansson, Lars-Anders},
  issn         = {0142-7873},
  keyword      = {glacier melting,transparency,zooplankton,phytoplankton,community,composition,vertical migration,UVR,PAR},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {1239--1248},
  publisher    = {Oxford University Press},
  series       = {Journal of Plankton Research},
  title        = {Climate-induced input of turbid glacial meltwater affects vertical distribution and community composition of phyto- and zooplankton},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbr025},
  volume       = {33},
  year         = {2011},
}