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Evolution of Prey Polymorphism Induced by Learning Predators

Holmér, Jennie LU and Green, Michael LU (2011) In Journal of Biological Systems 19(2). p.319-328
Abstract
A prey species using crypsis to avoid predators has the opportunity to evolve polymorphic crypsis when it is being exposed to two (or more) habitats with different backgrounds. Here, we investigate when this phenomenon can occur, in a simulation study with a sexually reproducing prey and a predator that can learn to find hiding prey, represented by an artificial neural network. Initially, the prey is well adapted to one habitat, but tries to expand its range by invading another, different, habitat. This can cause the prey to evolve toward an intermediate phenotype, equally cryptic in both habitats. The prey can also fail in adapting to its new environment, and stay the same. Alternatively, it can evolve polymorphic crypsis. We find that... (More)
A prey species using crypsis to avoid predators has the opportunity to evolve polymorphic crypsis when it is being exposed to two (or more) habitats with different backgrounds. Here, we investigate when this phenomenon can occur, in a simulation study with a sexually reproducing prey and a predator that can learn to find hiding prey, represented by an artificial neural network. Initially, the prey is well adapted to one habitat, but tries to expand its range by invading another, different, habitat. This can cause the prey to evolve toward an intermediate phenotype, equally cryptic in both habitats. The prey can also fail in adapting to its new environment, and stay the same. Alternatively, it can evolve polymorphic crypsis. We find that the evolutionary outcome depends on the amount of dispersal between the habitats, with polymorphic crypsis evolving for low dispersal rates, an intermediate phenotype will evolve for intermediate dispersal rates and no adaptation to the new habitat will occur for high dispersal rates. The distribution of phenotypes of the prey will also vary for different dispersal rates, with narrow distributions for low and high dispersal rate and a wide distribution for intermediate dispersal rates. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Crypsis, Artificial Neural Network, Heterogeneous Environment, Dispersal, Local Adaptation
in
Journal of Biological Systems
volume
19
issue
2
pages
319 - 328
publisher
World Scientific
external identifiers
  • wos:000292644100010
  • scopus:79960370133
ISSN
0218-3390
DOI
10.1142/S0218339011003944
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
cae1ad7e-e9cd-4625-9947-c31e311bd09a (old id 2094120)
date added to LUP
2011-08-25 08:23:03
date last changed
2017-01-01 05:28:22
@article{cae1ad7e-e9cd-4625-9947-c31e311bd09a,
  abstract     = {A prey species using crypsis to avoid predators has the opportunity to evolve polymorphic crypsis when it is being exposed to two (or more) habitats with different backgrounds. Here, we investigate when this phenomenon can occur, in a simulation study with a sexually reproducing prey and a predator that can learn to find hiding prey, represented by an artificial neural network. Initially, the prey is well adapted to one habitat, but tries to expand its range by invading another, different, habitat. This can cause the prey to evolve toward an intermediate phenotype, equally cryptic in both habitats. The prey can also fail in adapting to its new environment, and stay the same. Alternatively, it can evolve polymorphic crypsis. We find that the evolutionary outcome depends on the amount of dispersal between the habitats, with polymorphic crypsis evolving for low dispersal rates, an intermediate phenotype will evolve for intermediate dispersal rates and no adaptation to the new habitat will occur for high dispersal rates. The distribution of phenotypes of the prey will also vary for different dispersal rates, with narrow distributions for low and high dispersal rate and a wide distribution for intermediate dispersal rates.},
  author       = {Holmér, Jennie and Green, Michael},
  issn         = {0218-3390},
  keyword      = {Crypsis,Artificial Neural Network,Heterogeneous Environment,Dispersal,Local Adaptation},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {319--328},
  publisher    = {World Scientific},
  series       = {Journal of Biological Systems},
  title        = {Evolution of Prey Polymorphism Induced by Learning Predators},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0218339011003944},
  volume       = {19},
  year         = {2011},
}