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Geomagnetic storm of 29-31 October 2003: Geomagnetically induced currents and their relation to problems in the Swedish high-voltage power transmission system

Pulkkinen, A; Lindahl, Sture LU ; Viljanen, A and Pirjola, R (2005) In Space Weather: the International Journal of Research and Applications 3(8).
Abstract
On 30 October 2003, an ongoing geomagnetic superstorm knocked down a part of the high- voltage power transmission system in southern Sweden. The blackout lasted for an hour and left about 50,000 customers without electricity. The incident was probably the most severe geomagnetically induced current ( GIC) failure observed since the well- known March 1989 Quebec blackout. The " three- phase'' storm produced exceptionally large geomagnetic activity at the Fennoscandian auroral region. Although the diversity of the GIC drivers is addressed in the study, the problems in operating the Swedish system during the storm are attributed geophysically to substorms, storm sudden commencement, and enhanced ionospheric convection, all of which created... (More)
On 30 October 2003, an ongoing geomagnetic superstorm knocked down a part of the high- voltage power transmission system in southern Sweden. The blackout lasted for an hour and left about 50,000 customers without electricity. The incident was probably the most severe geomagnetically induced current ( GIC) failure observed since the well- known March 1989 Quebec blackout. The " three- phase'' storm produced exceptionally large geomagnetic activity at the Fennoscandian auroral region. Although the diversity of the GIC drivers is addressed in the study, the problems in operating the Swedish system during the storm are attributed geophysically to substorms, storm sudden commencement, and enhanced ionospheric convection, all of which created large and complex geoelectric fields capable of driving large GIC. On the basis of the basic twofold nature of the failure- related geoelectric field characteristics, a semideterministic approach for forecasting GIC- related geomagnetic activity in which average overall activity is supplemented with statistical estimations of the amplitudes of GIC fluctuations is suggested. The study revealed that the primary mode of GIC- related failures in the Swedish high- voltage power transmission system were via harmonic distortions produced by GIC combined with too sensitive operation of the protective relays. The outage in Malmo " on 30 October 2003 was caused by a combination of an abnormal switching state of the system and tripping of a low- set residual overcurrent relay that had a high sensitivity for the third harmonic of the fundamental frequency. (Less)
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author
organization
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type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Space Weather: the International Journal of Research and Applications
volume
3
issue
8
publisher
American Geophysical Union
external identifiers
  • wos:000231622600001
  • scopus:84900513443
ISSN
1539-4956
DOI
10.1029/2004SW000123
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
311c9806-0ed7-4773-a383-f8660555b664 (old id 225138)
date added to LUP
2007-08-14 10:38:46
date last changed
2017-10-22 03:36:45
@article{311c9806-0ed7-4773-a383-f8660555b664,
  abstract     = {On 30 October 2003, an ongoing geomagnetic superstorm knocked down a part of the high- voltage power transmission system in southern Sweden. The blackout lasted for an hour and left about 50,000 customers without electricity. The incident was probably the most severe geomagnetically induced current ( GIC) failure observed since the well- known March 1989 Quebec blackout. The " three- phase'' storm produced exceptionally large geomagnetic activity at the Fennoscandian auroral region. Although the diversity of the GIC drivers is addressed in the study, the problems in operating the Swedish system during the storm are attributed geophysically to substorms, storm sudden commencement, and enhanced ionospheric convection, all of which created large and complex geoelectric fields capable of driving large GIC. On the basis of the basic twofold nature of the failure- related geoelectric field characteristics, a semideterministic approach for forecasting GIC- related geomagnetic activity in which average overall activity is supplemented with statistical estimations of the amplitudes of GIC fluctuations is suggested. The study revealed that the primary mode of GIC- related failures in the Swedish high- voltage power transmission system were via harmonic distortions produced by GIC combined with too sensitive operation of the protective relays. The outage in Malmo " on 30 October 2003 was caused by a combination of an abnormal switching state of the system and tripping of a low- set residual overcurrent relay that had a high sensitivity for the third harmonic of the fundamental frequency.},
  author       = {Pulkkinen, A and Lindahl, Sture and Viljanen, A and Pirjola, R},
  issn         = {1539-4956},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  publisher    = {American Geophysical Union},
  series       = {Space Weather: the International Journal of Research and Applications},
  title        = {Geomagnetic storm of 29-31 October 2003: Geomagnetically induced currents and their relation to problems in the Swedish high-voltage power transmission system},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004SW000123},
  volume       = {3},
  year         = {2005},
}