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Assessment of long-term and recent pesticide exposure among rural school children in Nicaragua

Rodriguez, Teresa; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Lindh, Christian LU ; Rojas, Marianela; Lundberg, Ingvar and Wesseling, Catharina (2012) In Occupational and Environmental Medicine 69(2). p.119-125
Abstract
Objective This study assessed pesticide exposure of children in rural Nicaragua in relation to parental pesticide use, from around conception to current school age, as part of an epidemiological evaluation of neurodevelopment effects. Methods We included 132 children whose parents were subsistence farmers or plantation workers, or had an agricultural history. As proxies for children's long-term exposures, we constructed cumulative parental pesticide-specific use indices for periods before and after the child's birth from data obtained using an icon-calendar-based questionnaire, of application hours (h) for plantation workers and subsistence farmers, and of kilograms of active ingredients (ai) only for subsistence farmers. Pesticide... (More)
Objective This study assessed pesticide exposure of children in rural Nicaragua in relation to parental pesticide use, from around conception to current school age, as part of an epidemiological evaluation of neurodevelopment effects. Methods We included 132 children whose parents were subsistence farmers or plantation workers, or had an agricultural history. As proxies for children's long-term exposures, we constructed cumulative parental pesticide-specific use indices for periods before and after the child's birth from data obtained using an icon-calendar-based questionnaire, of application hours (h) for plantation workers and subsistence farmers, and of kilograms of active ingredients (ai) only for subsistence farmers. Pesticide residues of TCPY, 3-PBA and 2,4-D were analysed in children's urine as indicators for current exposures. Results Life-time indices were highest for the organophosphates chlorpyrifos (median 114 h (min 2; max 1584), 19.2 kg ai (min 0.37; max 548)) and methamidophos (84 h (6; 1964), 12.2 kg ai (0.30; 780)). The P50 values of children's urinary residues were 3.7 mu g/g creatinine for TCPY, 2.8 for 3-PBA and 0.9 for 2,4-D; TCPY values are comparable with those in other countries, but 3-PBA and 2,4-D are considerably higher. The maximum levels for all three pesticides are the highest reported for children. Residues increased on days after application, but most high residue levels were unrelated to parental pesticide applications. Conclusion Urinary pesticide residues reveal high environmental exposure among children in rural Nicaragua. The quantitative parental pesticide use indices as proxies for children's exposures during different periods may be useful for the evaluation of developmental health effects. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
volume
69
issue
2
pages
119 - 125
publisher
BMJ Publishing Group
external identifiers
  • wos:000299307700007
  • scopus:84855667815
ISSN
1470-7926
DOI
10.1136/oem.2010.062539
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
76a63643-bc7d-4399-9300-e014b7bb1b5c (old id 2355160)
date added to LUP
2012-03-01 11:26:39
date last changed
2017-09-10 04:22:03
@article{76a63643-bc7d-4399-9300-e014b7bb1b5c,
  abstract     = {Objective This study assessed pesticide exposure of children in rural Nicaragua in relation to parental pesticide use, from around conception to current school age, as part of an epidemiological evaluation of neurodevelopment effects. Methods We included 132 children whose parents were subsistence farmers or plantation workers, or had an agricultural history. As proxies for children's long-term exposures, we constructed cumulative parental pesticide-specific use indices for periods before and after the child's birth from data obtained using an icon-calendar-based questionnaire, of application hours (h) for plantation workers and subsistence farmers, and of kilograms of active ingredients (ai) only for subsistence farmers. Pesticide residues of TCPY, 3-PBA and 2,4-D were analysed in children's urine as indicators for current exposures. Results Life-time indices were highest for the organophosphates chlorpyrifos (median 114 h (min 2; max 1584), 19.2 kg ai (min 0.37; max 548)) and methamidophos (84 h (6; 1964), 12.2 kg ai (0.30; 780)). The P50 values of children's urinary residues were 3.7 mu g/g creatinine for TCPY, 2.8 for 3-PBA and 0.9 for 2,4-D; TCPY values are comparable with those in other countries, but 3-PBA and 2,4-D are considerably higher. The maximum levels for all three pesticides are the highest reported for children. Residues increased on days after application, but most high residue levels were unrelated to parental pesticide applications. Conclusion Urinary pesticide residues reveal high environmental exposure among children in rural Nicaragua. The quantitative parental pesticide use indices as proxies for children's exposures during different periods may be useful for the evaluation of developmental health effects.},
  author       = {Rodriguez, Teresa and van Wendel de Joode, Berna and Lindh, Christian and Rojas, Marianela and Lundberg, Ingvar and Wesseling, Catharina},
  issn         = {1470-7926},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {119--125},
  publisher    = {BMJ Publishing Group},
  series       = {Occupational and Environmental Medicine},
  title        = {Assessment of long-term and recent pesticide exposure among rural school children in Nicaragua},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.2010.062539},
  volume       = {69},
  year         = {2012},
}