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Pressurized hot ethanol extraction of carotenoids from carrot by-products.

Mustafa, Arwa LU ; Trevino, Leire Mijangos and Turner, Charlotta LU (2012) In Molecules 17(2). p.1809-1818
Abstract
Carotenoids are known for their antioxidant activity and health promoting effects. One of the richest sources of carotenoids are carrots. However, about 25% of the annual production is regarded as by-products due to strict market policies. The aim of this study was to extract carotenoids from those by-products. Conventional carotenoid extraction methods require the use of organic solvents, which are costly, environmentally hazardous, and require expensive disposal procedures. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) utilizes conventional solvents at elevated temperatures and pressure, and it requires less solvent and shorter extraction times. The extraction solvent of choice in this study was ethanol, which is a solvent generally recognized as... (More)
Carotenoids are known for their antioxidant activity and health promoting effects. One of the richest sources of carotenoids are carrots. However, about 25% of the annual production is regarded as by-products due to strict market policies. The aim of this study was to extract carotenoids from those by-products. Conventional carotenoid extraction methods require the use of organic solvents, which are costly, environmentally hazardous, and require expensive disposal procedures. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) utilizes conventional solvents at elevated temperatures and pressure, and it requires less solvent and shorter extraction times. The extraction solvent of choice in this study was ethanol, which is a solvent generally recognized as safe (GRAS). The extraction procedure was optimized by varying the extraction time (2-10 min) and the temperature (60-180 °C). β-Carotene was used as an indicator for carotenoids content in the carrots. The results showed that time and temperatures of extraction have significant effect on the yield of carotenoids. Increasing the flush volume during extraction did not improve the extractability of carotenoids, indicating that the extrication method was mainly desorption/diffusion controlled. Use of a dispersing agent that absorbs the moisture content was important for the efficiency of extraction. Analysing the content of β-carotene at the different length of extraction cycles showed that about 80% was recovered after around 20 min of extraction. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Molecules
volume
17
issue
2
pages
1809 - 1818
publisher
Molecular Diversity Preservation International
external identifiers
  • wos:000300717200044
  • pmid:22328079
  • scopus:84857522800
ISSN
1420-3049
DOI
10.3390/molecules17021809
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
3a7033f0-0a8f-4505-b5e2-ea33b523791f (old id 2366986)
date added to LUP
2012-03-06 16:46:16
date last changed
2017-06-18 04:12:56
@article{3a7033f0-0a8f-4505-b5e2-ea33b523791f,
  abstract     = {Carotenoids are known for their antioxidant activity and health promoting effects. One of the richest sources of carotenoids are carrots. However, about 25% of the annual production is regarded as by-products due to strict market policies. The aim of this study was to extract carotenoids from those by-products. Conventional carotenoid extraction methods require the use of organic solvents, which are costly, environmentally hazardous, and require expensive disposal procedures. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) utilizes conventional solvents at elevated temperatures and pressure, and it requires less solvent and shorter extraction times. The extraction solvent of choice in this study was ethanol, which is a solvent generally recognized as safe (GRAS). The extraction procedure was optimized by varying the extraction time (2-10 min) and the temperature (60-180 °C). β-Carotene was used as an indicator for carotenoids content in the carrots. The results showed that time and temperatures of extraction have significant effect on the yield of carotenoids. Increasing the flush volume during extraction did not improve the extractability of carotenoids, indicating that the extrication method was mainly desorption/diffusion controlled. Use of a dispersing agent that absorbs the moisture content was important for the efficiency of extraction. Analysing the content of β-carotene at the different length of extraction cycles showed that about 80% was recovered after around 20 min of extraction.},
  author       = {Mustafa, Arwa and Trevino, Leire Mijangos and Turner, Charlotta},
  issn         = {1420-3049},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {1809--1818},
  publisher    = {Molecular Diversity Preservation International},
  series       = {Molecules},
  title        = {Pressurized hot ethanol extraction of carotenoids from carrot by-products.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules17021809},
  volume       = {17},
  year         = {2012},
}