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Når arbeidende barn mobiliserer seg. En studie av tre unioner i Karnataka, India

Winsvold, Aina LU (2004)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

I ett ökande antal regioner i världen finns det arbetande barn som organiserar sig utifrån sin identitet som arbetande barn. Jag har studerat tre olika unioner i delstaten Karnataka i Indien, där jag har fokuserat på hur dom själva upplever mobiliseringen och vilka möjligheter de har att förändra sin situation inom existerande normer, traditioner och samhällsstrukturer. Avhandlingens syfte har varit att undersöka vilken betydelse arbetande barns mobilisering har för barnen i deras vardag, och vilka möjligheter de har att påverka sin situation. I Indien är myndigheterna ointresserade av barnens organisationer och krav, och det finns ett djupgående motstånd inom de olika myndigheterna att... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

I ett ökande antal regioner i världen finns det arbetande barn som organiserar sig utifrån sin identitet som arbetande barn. Jag har studerat tre olika unioner i delstaten Karnataka i Indien, där jag har fokuserat på hur dom själva upplever mobiliseringen och vilka möjligheter de har att förändra sin situation inom existerande normer, traditioner och samhällsstrukturer. Avhandlingens syfte har varit att undersöka vilken betydelse arbetande barns mobilisering har för barnen i deras vardag, och vilka möjligheter de har att påverka sin situation. I Indien är myndigheterna ointresserade av barnens organisationer och krav, och det finns ett djupgående motstånd inom de olika myndigheterna att implementera Barnkonventionen i sitt arbete. Förhållanden som existerar i den informella sektorn gör det svårt för barnen att påverka sin egen arbetssituation eller arbetsvillkor, och trots gemensamma intressen så ställer sig traditionella fackföreningar negativa till de här organisationerna. Samtidigt är attityder och retorik i diskursen rörande barns rättigheter och barns deltagande inne i en förändringsprocess både på ett nationellt och internationellt plan. Trots motgångar får barnen en ökad kunskap och en större självkänsla genom mobiliseringen. Denna påverkar även identitetsuppfattningen och leder ofta till ändrade relationer på lokalt plan, där barnen kan få en annan förhandlingsposition. Den sociala sammanhållningen inom organisationerna är stor, och medlemmarna värdesätter möjligheten att kunna diskutera sina problem och tankar med andra barn i liknande situationer. Genom att mobilisera sig får barnen lära sig att samarbeta, se på saker utifrån andra perspektiv, skapa resurser samt lära sig hur man praktiskt går till väga för att lösa konkreta problem. Organisationerna ökar i antal men totalt sett är det förhållandevis få av de arbetande barnen som mobiliserar sig, vilket beror på olika orsaker såsom att organisationerna är geografiskt begränsade och att barnen är helt beroende av stöd från lokala organisationer. (Less)
Abstract
A number of working children in several regions over the world are mobilising to fight for better working conditions and to gain their rights according to how they interpret the Child Rights Convention (UNCRC) from 1989. Despite the increasing focus on child participation, their approaches and their demands are in many aspects controversial and they are often met with suspicion among diverse actors involved in the discourse of child labour. This dissertation is about three different child worker unions in the state Karnataka, in south India. The overall aim is to explore the impact of mobilisation and to investigate what possibilities the children have for changing their situation within the existing norms, traditions and structures, both... (More)
A number of working children in several regions over the world are mobilising to fight for better working conditions and to gain their rights according to how they interpret the Child Rights Convention (UNCRC) from 1989. Despite the increasing focus on child participation, their approaches and their demands are in many aspects controversial and they are often met with suspicion among diverse actors involved in the discourse of child labour. This dissertation is about three different child worker unions in the state Karnataka, in south India. The overall aim is to explore the impact of mobilisation and to investigate what possibilities the children have for changing their situation within the existing norms, traditions and structures, both in the local society and on higher administrative levels. Further aims are to identify factors influencing both child participation and child labour. The methodological strategies involve interviews and observations, which have been continually shaped to suit the varied contexts.



This is an explorative study and the empirical findings are discussed within several theoretical approaches. There are two main focuses in this study. One is child participation and its implications. This includes influencing internal factors, such as the development of a collective identity within a group, and the sensitive interaction among children and between children and adults. The other focus is on the political space these unions act within, their possibilities to operate and make an impact on their environment. This includes the underlying structures, the attitudes, resources and knowledge among the authorities and the public.



To conclude, despite several limitations, most of the involved children are highly influenced by the mobilisation, especially on a personal level. Norms, bureaucracy and traditional top-down approaches both in the Indian society and on the international level obstruct their influence in many political issues. However, with active lobbying by allied adults and carefully prepared strategies they are able to put pressure on certain issues. Decisive factors for the children and their self-esteem are increased interaction with several actors, access to information, and experience of respect.



Collective gatherings, critical discussions and expressed demands lead to a change in how the children perceive themselves. Their roles are also changed which often leads to a changed interaction within their community. Further, in a long-term perspective they have had an impact on the discourse of child labour. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Docent Bolin Hort, Per, Södertörns högskola, Huddinge
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Social sciences, child adult interaction, child focused perspective, informal sector, social mobilisation, child interviews, Karnataka, political space, collective identity, child work, child participation, child labour, child rights, Samhällsvetenskaper, Sociology, Sociologi
pages
300 pages
publisher
Department of Sociology, Lund University
defense location
Kulturens auditorium, Lund
defense date
2004-12-16 10:15
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN: LUSADG/SAS-04/1162/SE
ISSN
1102-4712
ISBN
91-7267-183-1
language
Norwegian
LU publication?
yes
id
923de801-e099-45ab-9413-5c722c9e62e3 (old id 24332)
date added to LUP
2007-05-31 15:31:27
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:52
@phdthesis{923de801-e099-45ab-9413-5c722c9e62e3,
  abstract     = {A number of working children in several regions over the world are mobilising to fight for better working conditions and to gain their rights according to how they interpret the Child Rights Convention (UNCRC) from 1989. Despite the increasing focus on child participation, their approaches and their demands are in many aspects controversial and they are often met with suspicion among diverse actors involved in the discourse of child labour. This dissertation is about three different child worker unions in the state Karnataka, in south India. The overall aim is to explore the impact of mobilisation and to investigate what possibilities the children have for changing their situation within the existing norms, traditions and structures, both in the local society and on higher administrative levels. Further aims are to identify factors influencing both child participation and child labour. The methodological strategies involve interviews and observations, which have been continually shaped to suit the varied contexts.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
This is an explorative study and the empirical findings are discussed within several theoretical approaches. There are two main focuses in this study. One is child participation and its implications. This includes influencing internal factors, such as the development of a collective identity within a group, and the sensitive interaction among children and between children and adults. The other focus is on the political space these unions act within, their possibilities to operate and make an impact on their environment. This includes the underlying structures, the attitudes, resources and knowledge among the authorities and the public.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
To conclude, despite several limitations, most of the involved children are highly influenced by the mobilisation, especially on a personal level. Norms, bureaucracy and traditional top-down approaches both in the Indian society and on the international level obstruct their influence in many political issues. However, with active lobbying by allied adults and carefully prepared strategies they are able to put pressure on certain issues. Decisive factors for the children and their self-esteem are increased interaction with several actors, access to information, and experience of respect.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Collective gatherings, critical discussions and expressed demands lead to a change in how the children perceive themselves. Their roles are also changed which often leads to a changed interaction within their community. Further, in a long-term perspective they have had an impact on the discourse of child labour.},
  author       = {Winsvold, Aina},
  isbn         = {91-7267-183-1},
  issn         = {1102-4712},
  keyword      = {Social sciences,child adult interaction,child focused perspective,informal sector,social mobilisation,child interviews,Karnataka,political space,collective identity,child work,child participation,child labour,child rights,Samhällsvetenskaper,Sociology,Sociologi},
  language     = {nor},
  pages        = {300},
  publisher    = {Department of Sociology, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Når arbeidende barn mobiliserer seg. En studie av tre unioner i Karnataka, India},
  year         = {2004},
}