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Informationsteknik och organisatorisk förändring - Teknik, organisation och produktivitet i svensk banksektor 1975-2003

Appelqvist, Joakim LU (2005) In Lund Studies in Economic History 36.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Syftet med avhandlingen är att analysera den tekniska och organisatoriska ut¬vecklingen inom svensk banksektor under perioden 1975-2003 samt att se hur för¬ändringar i dessa två variabler påverkat produktivitetsutvecklingen. Utgångspunkten för analysen av den tekniska och organisatoriska förändringen är att det föreligger ett komplementärt förhållande mellan informationsteknikens utveckling och förändringen av organiseringen av arbetet i bankerna från en tayloristisk till en post-tayloristisk organisationsmodell.



Analysen av den informationstekniska utvecklingen i banksektorn visar på en övergång från stordatorsystem till klient/server-nätverk. Förändringen är dock inte... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Syftet med avhandlingen är att analysera den tekniska och organisatoriska ut¬vecklingen inom svensk banksektor under perioden 1975-2003 samt att se hur för¬ändringar i dessa två variabler påverkat produktivitetsutvecklingen. Utgångspunkten för analysen av den tekniska och organisatoriska förändringen är att det föreligger ett komplementärt förhållande mellan informationsteknikens utveckling och förändringen av organiseringen av arbetet i bankerna från en tayloristisk till en post-tayloristisk organisationsmodell.



Analysen av den informationstekniska utvecklingen i banksektorn visar på en övergång från stordatorsystem till klient/server-nätverk. Förändringen är dock inte kontinuerlig utan tre tydliga investeringsvågor har identifierats. Den första vågen, 1972-1980, innebar att verksamheten rationaliserades genom introduktionen av on-lineuppkopplade kassaterminalsystem. Under den andra vågen, 1985-1989, genomfördes dels investeringar i nya kassaterminalsystem, vilka gjorde en mängd olika funktioner tillgängliga för de anställda, dels omfattande satsningar på självbetjäning genom installationen av uttagsautomater och introduktionen av telefonbanker. Den tredje vågen, 1995-1999, medförde både en ökning av tillgången på information för de anställda genom övergången till klient/server-system och en fördjupad satsning på självbetjäning via introduktionen av Internetbanker.



I analysen av den organisatoriska utvecklingen slås det fast att det inte sker någon utarmning av arbetsuppgifterna i samband med den första investeringsvågen. Orsaken är att det sker en organisatorisk motreaktion mot den rutinisering av arbetsuppgifterna som de on-lineuppkopplade kassaterminalssystemen gav upphov till. Istället sker det en kontinuerlig ökning av kvalificeringsgraden hos de anställda i den svenska banksektorn under hela den studerade perioden samtidigt som organisationsstrukturen blir allt plattare. De organisatoriska utvecklingstendenserna förstärktes dessutom i slutet av 1990-talet genom en ökad specialisering hos arbetskraften, bl.a. beroende på en ökad efterfrågan på avancerade finansiella tjänster och överföringen av rutinärenden på kunderna själva i samband med introduktionen av Internetbankerna.



Produktiviteten i den finansiella sektorn är erkänt svår att mäta. Därför konstrueras tre olika mått på arbetsproduktiviteten. Två av dessa mäter den tekniska effektivitetens utveckling, medan det tredje mäter förändringar i den ekonomiska effektiviteten. De två olika typerna av mått uppvisar en divergerande utveckling. Under perioden 1975-1985 minskar den tekniska effektiviteten samtidigt som den ekonomiska ökar, vilket framför allt tillskrivs de omfattande regleringar som styr bankernas verksamhet under den aktuella perioden. Under perioden 1985-1990 indikerar samtliga mått en årlig ökning av produktiviteten, medan utvecklingen under den följande perioden, 1990-1995, är mycket svårtolkad p.g.a. bankkrisen. Under den avslutande perioden, 1995-2002, ökar den tekniska effektiviteten snabbt, medan den ekonomiska utvecklas negativt.



Avhandlingen innehåller dessutom en ingående beskrivning av de institutionella, marknadsmässiga och strukturella förändringarna på finansmarknaderna under den studerade perioden. (Less)
Abstract
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the relation between technological and organizational change in the Swedish banking sector from 1975 to 2003. Besides analyzing the changes in these two variables the effects of the interaction on productivity changes in the sector are examined. The use of the concept of complementarity as a basis for analyzing the interaction between technological and organizational changes means that a clear link between the transformation of information technology, and the transition from a Tayloristic to Post-Tayloristic model, is expected.



The investigation of the development of computer technology in the Swedish banking sector establishes a move from main frame computers to client-server... (More)
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the relation between technological and organizational change in the Swedish banking sector from 1975 to 2003. Besides analyzing the changes in these two variables the effects of the interaction on productivity changes in the sector are examined. The use of the concept of complementarity as a basis for analyzing the interaction between technological and organizational changes means that a clear link between the transformation of information technology, and the transition from a Tayloristic to Post-Tayloristic model, is expected.



The investigation of the development of computer technology in the Swedish banking sector establishes a move from main frame computers to client-server networks. However, the transition is not continuous, since three distinct investment waves are identified. During the first wave, 1972-1980, the on-line terminals were used to automate routine transactions performed by the employees. The second wave, 1985-1985, included the installations of terminal systems in all the large banks, which increased the access to information and information processing software. Furthermore, the banks conducted massive investments in self-service systems, such as networks of ATMs and telephone banking. During the third wave, 1995-1999, the internal access to information was increased further with the introduction of client-server networks and the strengthening of the self-service strategy through the introduction of internet banking.



Turning to the organizational developments, no evidence of de-skilling could be identified during the first wave of investments. The reason was the organizational changes which were implemented in order to counteract the routinizing effects induced by the introduction of the on-line terminals. Instead, the data shows a continuous rise in skills as well as a transition towards flat organizations in the Swedish banking sector during the entire period of study. These trends were reinforced by the increased specialization during the second half of the 1990s, which, in turn, were a result of the increased demand for complex financial services and the transfer of routine transaction to the clients with the introduction of internet banking.



It is notoriously difficult to measure productivity in the financial sector, which is the main reason for construction three different indicators. Two of these measure the development of technical efficiency, while the third is an indicator of changes in economic efficiency. The technical efficiency decreased during 1975-1985, while the economic efficiency showed an increase. The main reason was the heavy regulation of the banking industry during this period. However, there was an increase in all indicators during the period of deregulation between 1985 and 1990. The data for the following period, 1990-1995 is hard to interpret due to the severity of the banking crisis in the beginning of the 1990s. During the last period, 1995-2003, the development was divergent, with a rapid increase in technical efficiency and a decrease in economic efficiency.



The thesis also includes a thorough description of the institutional and structural changes in the financial markets of Sweden during 1975-2003. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Professor Engwall, Lars, Department of Business Studies, Uppsala university
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Ekonomisk och social historia, Social and economic history, Employment relations, Complementarity, Sweden, Post-Taylorism, Taylorism, Productivity, Banking, Information technology, Organizations, Technical change, Organizational change, Financial science, Finansiering, Organizational science, Organisationsteori
in
Lund Studies in Economic History
volume
36
pages
285 pages
publisher
Almqvist & Wiksell International
defense location
Crafoordssalen, Holger Crafoords Ekonomicentrum, Lund
defense date
2005-10-01 10:15
ISSN
1400-4860
ISBN
91-22-02131-0
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
f9d78c67-018a-4354-a49e-431f8c344eed (old id 24844)
date added to LUP
2007-06-01 08:37:12
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:57
@phdthesis{f9d78c67-018a-4354-a49e-431f8c344eed,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the relation between technological and organizational change in the Swedish banking sector from 1975 to 2003. Besides analyzing the changes in these two variables the effects of the interaction on productivity changes in the sector are examined. The use of the concept of complementarity as a basis for analyzing the interaction between technological and organizational changes means that a clear link between the transformation of information technology, and the transition from a Tayloristic to Post-Tayloristic model, is expected.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The investigation of the development of computer technology in the Swedish banking sector establishes a move from main frame computers to client-server networks. However, the transition is not continuous, since three distinct investment waves are identified. During the first wave, 1972-1980, the on-line terminals were used to automate routine transactions performed by the employees. The second wave, 1985-1985, included the installations of terminal systems in all the large banks, which increased the access to information and information processing software. Furthermore, the banks conducted massive investments in self-service systems, such as networks of ATMs and telephone banking. During the third wave, 1995-1999, the internal access to information was increased further with the introduction of client-server networks and the strengthening of the self-service strategy through the introduction of internet banking.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Turning to the organizational developments, no evidence of de-skilling could be identified during the first wave of investments. The reason was the organizational changes which were implemented in order to counteract the routinizing effects induced by the introduction of the on-line terminals. Instead, the data shows a continuous rise in skills as well as a transition towards flat organizations in the Swedish banking sector during the entire period of study. These trends were reinforced by the increased specialization during the second half of the 1990s, which, in turn, were a result of the increased demand for complex financial services and the transfer of routine transaction to the clients with the introduction of internet banking.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
It is notoriously difficult to measure productivity in the financial sector, which is the main reason for construction three different indicators. Two of these measure the development of technical efficiency, while the third is an indicator of changes in economic efficiency. The technical efficiency decreased during 1975-1985, while the economic efficiency showed an increase. The main reason was the heavy regulation of the banking industry during this period. However, there was an increase in all indicators during the period of deregulation between 1985 and 1990. The data for the following period, 1990-1995 is hard to interpret due to the severity of the banking crisis in the beginning of the 1990s. During the last period, 1995-2003, the development was divergent, with a rapid increase in technical efficiency and a decrease in economic efficiency.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The thesis also includes a thorough description of the institutional and structural changes in the financial markets of Sweden during 1975-2003.},
  author       = {Appelqvist, Joakim},
  isbn         = {91-22-02131-0},
  issn         = {1400-4860},
  keyword      = {Ekonomisk och social historia,Social and economic history,Employment relations,Complementarity,Sweden,Post-Taylorism,Taylorism,Productivity,Banking,Information technology,Organizations,Technical change,Organizational change,Financial science,Finansiering,Organizational science,Organisationsteori},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {285},
  publisher    = {Almqvist & Wiksell International},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund Studies in Economic History},
  title        = {Informationsteknik och organisatorisk förändring - Teknik, organisation och produktivitet i svensk banksektor 1975-2003},
  volume       = {36},
  year         = {2005},
}