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Plan & Protest. En sociologisk studie av kontroverser, demokrati och makt i den fysiska planeringen.

Henecke, Birgitta LU (2006) In Lund Dissertations in Sociology 71.
Abstract
Since planning in connection with new building projects frequently generates controversy, it can be seen as a typical form of contentious politics. The aim of this dissertation is to analyze siting controversies, their origin, development and termination, in efforts to explore the problem of legitimacy in planning processes of this sort.



The research approach employed is that of a multiple case study analysis. Four different planning processes concerning building projects in southern Sweden in which siting controversies occurred were selected. Two of them concerned housing projects ? a small infill project in a cultural environment and a large housing development project on earlier farmland. The other two concerned... (More)
Since planning in connection with new building projects frequently generates controversy, it can be seen as a typical form of contentious politics. The aim of this dissertation is to analyze siting controversies, their origin, development and termination, in efforts to explore the problem of legitimacy in planning processes of this sort.



The research approach employed is that of a multiple case study analysis. Four different planning processes concerning building projects in southern Sweden in which siting controversies occurred were selected. Two of them concerned housing projects ? a small infill project in a cultural environment and a large housing development project on earlier farmland. The other two concerned infrastructure ? the building of a railroad line and a road construction project. The case studies were based on analyses of public records and on interviews with different participants in the planning process: representatives of the developer, municipal officials and politicians, people living in the vicinity of the projects and representatives of local organisations. Three different theoretical perspectives were used in analyzing the empirical material: 1) theories of controversy for examining the content, structure and effects of the siting controversies, 2) theories of democracy for analyzing the intentions of the Planning and Building Act, the interpretation of these intentions by the actors and the democratic character of their interactions, 3) theories of power for analyzing different dimensions of power in the planning process.



Major collides between different institutional logics of market, politics and civil society were evident in all of the cases. Three of the controversies were similar in structure, involving escalation and polarisation of the opposing sides. The fourth controversy exemplified a conflict that persisted without escalation. As my analysis demonstrates, the amount of resources and the possibilities to mobilize these by those negatively affected by the plans were of particular importance for the development of the controversies. However, none of the cases terminated in a complete resolution. On the other hand, resistance and voice entailed that further investigation of the issues occurred, in some cases producing minor changes of the original plans.



Both participant and elitist oriented activities were evident in the planning processes. The official discourse of a participant democratic planning process gave rise on the part of those affected to expectations that were seldom met and hence to distress. Rather than reducing the siting controversies, the actual possibilities for public participation tended to reinforce them. Analysis of the power relationships showed the developers to have an especially dominant role. In struggles between the different actors involved, the developers had access primarily to allocative resources, the local governmental officials to authoritative resources, and the residents who were affected to expressive resources. The results of the struggles were partly dependent upon alliances with or support by actors from other spheres of society and of compromises between different institutional logics. The conclusion is that in efforts to achieve legitimacy in the planning process it is important to take account of: the nature of the controversies, the degree of democratic content of the planning process, and the effects of existing power structures. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Den fysiska planeringen innebär interaktion mellan aktörer inom skilda samhällssfärer där parter med skilda sociala positioner, resurser, perspektiv och värderingar möts. Aktörernas bilder av vilka effekter ett givet planförslag medför och vilka effekter som ska betraktas som de mest centrala varierar regelmässigt. Mellan de berörda parterna är det därför inte ovanligt att kontroverser uppstår om hur konsekvenserna ska bedömas och om huruvida de planerade förändringarna är nödvändiga, önskvärda eller inte. Motsättningarna avspeglar skilda institutionella logiker bland aktörer från marknadssfären, den statliga och kommunala sfären respektive närsamhället, men även kompromisser mellan... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Den fysiska planeringen innebär interaktion mellan aktörer inom skilda samhällssfärer där parter med skilda sociala positioner, resurser, perspektiv och värderingar möts. Aktörernas bilder av vilka effekter ett givet planförslag medför och vilka effekter som ska betraktas som de mest centrala varierar regelmässigt. Mellan de berörda parterna är det därför inte ovanligt att kontroverser uppstår om hur konsekvenserna ska bedömas och om huruvida de planerade förändringarna är nödvändiga, önskvärda eller inte. Motsättningarna avspeglar skilda institutionella logiker bland aktörer från marknadssfären, den statliga och kommunala sfären respektive närsamhället, men även kompromisser mellan dessa.



Avhandlingen baseras på fallstudier av fyra olika typer av projekt där plankontroverser utvecklats. Dels två bostadsprojekt, ett större projekt i form av nyexploateringen på jungfrulig mark i ett villa samhälle (Annestad, Malmö) och ett mindre förtätningsprojekt i en kulturhistoriskt intressant miljö (Villa Sunna, Lund). Dels två infrastrukturprojekt, ett större järnvägsprojekt genom central stadsbyggnad (Västkustbanan, Lund) och ett mindre vägprojekt (Väg 21 vid Önnestad, Kristianstad).



Fallstudierna analyseras utifrån tre teoretiska perspektiv. Den kontroversteoretiska analysen av aktörernas argument i plankontroverserna påvisar hur kunskap av olika slag används för att legitimera positioner i förhållande till planförslagen. Det demokratiteoretiska perspektivet bidrar med teorier om vad som utgör betydelsefulla inslag i en demokratisk process, vilket jämförs med hur aktörerna upplever och värderar olika inslag i planprocessen. Medan det sistnämnda perspektivet har en normativ prägel tar det maktteoriska fasta på vad som faktiskt sker och de bakomliggande faktorer som påverkar händelseförloppet. Det tydliggör hur de demokratiska ambitioner som den nuvarande plan- och bygglagstiftningen avspeglar delvis avleder uppmärksamheten från avgörande maktförhållanden i planprocessen.



Den teoretiska analysen av empirin ger olika pusselbitar till hur problemet med bristande legitimitet i planprocessen kan förstås. Avhandlingen avser därmed att ge kunskapsunderlag för en mer ändamålsenlig hantering av de intresse- och värdekonflikter som så ofta uppstår i planprocessen. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Lidskog, Rolf, Örebro universitet
organization
alternative title
Plans & Protests. A Sociological Study of Controversies, Democracy and Power in Urban Planning
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Sociology, Samhällsvetenskaper, Social sciences, urban planning, siting controversies, public participation, power, democracy, institutional logic, Sociologi, Town and country planning, Stads- och glesbygdsplanering
in
Lund Dissertations in Sociology
volume
71
pages
271 pages
publisher
Department of Sociology, Lund University
defense location
St Algatan 4, Lund, hörsalen
defense date
2006-03-03 10:15:00
ISSN
1102-4712
ISBN
91-7267-213-7
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
abbab84d-99d5-468a-9407-11563274288a (old id 25756)
date added to LUP
2016-04-01 16:13:18
date last changed
2019-05-21 15:57:11
@phdthesis{abbab84d-99d5-468a-9407-11563274288a,
  abstract     = {Since planning in connection with new building projects frequently generates controversy, it can be seen as a typical form of contentious politics. The aim of this dissertation is to analyze siting controversies, their origin, development and termination, in efforts to explore the problem of legitimacy in planning processes of this sort.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The research approach employed is that of a multiple case study analysis. Four different planning processes concerning building projects in southern Sweden in which siting controversies occurred were selected. Two of them concerned housing projects ? a small infill project in a cultural environment and a large housing development project on earlier farmland. The other two concerned infrastructure ? the building of a railroad line and a road construction project. The case studies were based on analyses of public records and on interviews with different participants in the planning process: representatives of the developer, municipal officials and politicians, people living in the vicinity of the projects and representatives of local organisations. Three different theoretical perspectives were used in analyzing the empirical material: 1) theories of controversy for examining the content, structure and effects of the siting controversies, 2) theories of democracy for analyzing the intentions of the Planning and Building Act, the interpretation of these intentions by the actors and the democratic character of their interactions, 3) theories of power for analyzing different dimensions of power in the planning process.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Major collides between different institutional logics of market, politics and civil society were evident in all of the cases. Three of the controversies were similar in structure, involving escalation and polarisation of the opposing sides. The fourth controversy exemplified a conflict that persisted without escalation. As my analysis demonstrates, the amount of resources and the possibilities to mobilize these by those negatively affected by the plans were of particular importance for the development of the controversies. However, none of the cases terminated in a complete resolution. On the other hand, resistance and voice entailed that further investigation of the issues occurred, in some cases producing minor changes of the original plans.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Both participant and elitist oriented activities were evident in the planning processes. The official discourse of a participant democratic planning process gave rise on the part of those affected to expectations that were seldom met and hence to distress. Rather than reducing the siting controversies, the actual possibilities for public participation tended to reinforce them. Analysis of the power relationships showed the developers to have an especially dominant role. In struggles between the different actors involved, the developers had access primarily to allocative resources, the local governmental officials to authoritative resources, and the residents who were affected to expressive resources. The results of the struggles were partly dependent upon alliances with or support by actors from other spheres of society and of compromises between different institutional logics. The conclusion is that in efforts to achieve legitimacy in the planning process it is important to take account of: the nature of the controversies, the degree of democratic content of the planning process, and the effects of existing power structures.},
  author       = {Henecke, Birgitta},
  isbn         = {91-7267-213-7},
  issn         = {1102-4712},
  language     = {swe},
  publisher    = {Department of Sociology, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund Dissertations in Sociology},
  title        = {Plan & Protest. En sociologisk studie av kontroverser, demokrati och makt i den fysiska planeringen.},
  volume       = {71},
  year         = {2006},
}