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Elevated Enterotoxin A Expression and Formation in Staphylococcus aureus and its Association with Prophage Induction.

Cao, Rong LU ; Zeaki, Nikoleta LU ; Wallin, Nina LU ; Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Schelin, Jenny LU and Rådström, Peter LU (2012) In Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78(14). p.4942-4948
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus strains producing the bacteriophage-encoded staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) were divided into two groups, high- and low-SEA-producing strains, based on the amount of SEA produced. After growth under favorable conditions in batch cultures, ten of the 21 strains tested produced more than 1,000 ng/ml SEA and nine strains produced less than 10 ng/ml SEA; two enterotoxigenic strains, MRSA252 and Newman, produced intermediate levels of SEA (around 450 ng/ml). The differences in the production of SEA were found to be associated with the expression level of sea and whether they hosted the versions sea(1) or sea(2). Furthermore, differences in the nucleotide sequence in the Siphoviridae phage region showed two clonal... (More)
Staphylococcus aureus strains producing the bacteriophage-encoded staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) were divided into two groups, high- and low-SEA-producing strains, based on the amount of SEA produced. After growth under favorable conditions in batch cultures, ten of the 21 strains tested produced more than 1,000 ng/ml SEA and nine strains produced less than 10 ng/ml SEA; two enterotoxigenic strains, MRSA252 and Newman, produced intermediate levels of SEA (around 450 ng/ml). The differences in the production of SEA were found to be associated with the expression level of sea and whether they hosted the versions sea(1) or sea(2). Furthermore, differences in the nucleotide sequence in the Siphoviridae phage region showed two clonal lineages of the high-SEA-producing strains. One of these lines was correlated with the capacity for a massive increase in SEA levels by prophage induction as demonstrated using mitomycin C (MC). This was also confirmed by the occurrence of additional sea expression presumed to be initiated by a latent phage promoter located upstream of the endogenous sea promoter. Remarkably, the SEA level was increased by up to ten fold in some strains due to prophage induction. The low-SEA-producing group and the high-SEA-producing subgroup lacking phage activated sea transcription showed no increase in SEA formation after the addition of MC. This study demonstrates that sea expression in enterotoxigenic strains is correlated with the clonal lineage of sea-encoded phages. The high-SEA-producing group, and in particular the prophage inducible sea(1) group, may be more relevant in staphylococcal food poisoning than the low-SEA-producing group, mainly harboring sea(2). (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
volume
78
issue
14
pages
4942 - 4948
publisher
American Society for Microbiology
external identifiers
  • wos:000306098600021
  • pmid:22544256
  • scopus:84863731315
ISSN
0099-2240
DOI
10.1128/AEM.00803-12
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
b2867b30-14ec-4e5b-88f6-39d329de4aab (old id 2609363)
date added to LUP
2012-06-28 14:59:02
date last changed
2017-09-10 03:24:52
@article{b2867b30-14ec-4e5b-88f6-39d329de4aab,
  abstract     = {Staphylococcus aureus strains producing the bacteriophage-encoded staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) were divided into two groups, high- and low-SEA-producing strains, based on the amount of SEA produced. After growth under favorable conditions in batch cultures, ten of the 21 strains tested produced more than 1,000 ng/ml SEA and nine strains produced less than 10 ng/ml SEA; two enterotoxigenic strains, MRSA252 and Newman, produced intermediate levels of SEA (around 450 ng/ml). The differences in the production of SEA were found to be associated with the expression level of sea and whether they hosted the versions sea(1) or sea(2). Furthermore, differences in the nucleotide sequence in the Siphoviridae phage region showed two clonal lineages of the high-SEA-producing strains. One of these lines was correlated with the capacity for a massive increase in SEA levels by prophage induction as demonstrated using mitomycin C (MC). This was also confirmed by the occurrence of additional sea expression presumed to be initiated by a latent phage promoter located upstream of the endogenous sea promoter. Remarkably, the SEA level was increased by up to ten fold in some strains due to prophage induction. The low-SEA-producing group and the high-SEA-producing subgroup lacking phage activated sea transcription showed no increase in SEA formation after the addition of MC. This study demonstrates that sea expression in enterotoxigenic strains is correlated with the clonal lineage of sea-encoded phages. The high-SEA-producing group, and in particular the prophage inducible sea(1) group, may be more relevant in staphylococcal food poisoning than the low-SEA-producing group, mainly harboring sea(2).},
  author       = {Cao, Rong and Zeaki, Nikoleta and Wallin, Nina and Skandamis, Panagiotis N and Schelin, Jenny and Rådström, Peter},
  issn         = {0099-2240},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {14},
  pages        = {4942--4948},
  publisher    = {American Society for Microbiology},
  series       = {Applied and Environmental Microbiology},
  title        = {Elevated Enterotoxin A Expression and Formation in Staphylococcus aureus and its Association with Prophage Induction.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00803-12},
  volume       = {78},
  year         = {2012},
}