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Caesarean Section on The Risk of Celiac Disease in the Offspring : The Teddy Study

Koletzko, Sibylle; Lee, Hye-Seung; Beyerlein, Andreas; Aronsson, Carin A. LU ; Hummel, Michael; Liu, Edwin; Simell, Ville; Kurppa, Kalle; Lernmark, Åke LU and Hagopian, William, et al. (2017) In Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Abstract

OBJECTIVE:: Caesarean section (C-section) is associated with various immune-mediated diseases in the offspring. We investigated the relationship between mode of delivery and celiac disease (CD) and CD autoimmunity (CDA) in a multinational birth cohort. METHODS:: From 2004 to 2010 infants from the general population who tested positive for HLA DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 were enrolled in The Environmental Determinants for Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. Children were annually screened for transglutaminase autoantibodies, if positive re-tested after 3–6 months and those persistently positive defined as CDA. Associations of C-section with maternal (age, education level, parity, pre-pregnancy weight, diabetes, smoking, weight gain during... (More)

OBJECTIVE:: Caesarean section (C-section) is associated with various immune-mediated diseases in the offspring. We investigated the relationship between mode of delivery and celiac disease (CD) and CD autoimmunity (CDA) in a multinational birth cohort. METHODS:: From 2004 to 2010 infants from the general population who tested positive for HLA DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 were enrolled in The Environmental Determinants for Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. Children were annually screened for transglutaminase autoantibodies, if positive re-tested after 3–6 months and those persistently positive defined as CDA. Associations of C-section with maternal (age, education level, parity, pre-pregnancy weight, diabetes, smoking, weight gain during pregnancy) and child characteristics (gestational age, birth weight) were examined by Fisherʼs exact test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CDA or CD were calculated by Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS:: Of 6,087 analyzed singletons 1600 (26%) were born by C-section (Germany 38%, US 37%, Finland 18%, Sweden 16%), the remaining vaginally without instrumental support; 979 (16%) had developed CDA and 343 (6%) CD. C-section was associated with lower risk for CDA (HR?=?0.85, [95% CI 0.73, 0.99], p?=?0.032) and CD (HR?=?0.75, [95% CI 0.58, 0.98], p?=?0.034). After adjusting for country, sex, HLA-genotype, CD in family, maternal education and breastfeeding duration, significance was lost for CDA (HR?=?0.91, [95% CI 0.78, 1.06], p?=?0.20) and CD (HR?=?0.85, [95% CI 0.65, 1.11], p?=?0.24). Pre-surgical ruptured membranes had no influence on CDA or CD development. CONCLUSION:: C-section is not associated with increased risk for CDA or CD in the offspring.

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Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
external identifiers
  • scopus:85026445219
ISSN
0277-2116
DOI
10.1097/MPG.0000000000001682
language
English
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yes
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26b0795b-a971-4ede-8ef9-b01fb51286dc
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2017-08-24 14:38:13
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2018-02-23 03:00:13
@article{26b0795b-a971-4ede-8ef9-b01fb51286dc,
  abstract     = {<p>OBJECTIVE:: Caesarean section (C-section) is associated with various immune-mediated diseases in the offspring. We investigated the relationship between mode of delivery and celiac disease (CD) and CD autoimmunity (CDA) in a multinational birth cohort. METHODS:: From 2004 to 2010 infants from the general population who tested positive for HLA DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 were enrolled in The Environmental Determinants for Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. Children were annually screened for transglutaminase autoantibodies, if positive re-tested after 3–6 months and those persistently positive defined as CDA. Associations of C-section with maternal (age, education level, parity, pre-pregnancy weight, diabetes, smoking, weight gain during pregnancy) and child characteristics (gestational age, birth weight) were examined by Fisherʼs exact test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CDA or CD were calculated by Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS:: Of 6,087 analyzed singletons 1600 (26%) were born by C-section (Germany 38%, US 37%, Finland 18%, Sweden 16%), the remaining vaginally without instrumental support; 979 (16%) had developed CDA and 343 (6%) CD. C-section was associated with lower risk for CDA (HR?=?0.85, [95% CI 0.73, 0.99], p?=?0.032) and CD (HR?=?0.75, [95% CI 0.58, 0.98], p?=?0.034). After adjusting for country, sex, HLA-genotype, CD in family, maternal education and breastfeeding duration, significance was lost for CDA (HR?=?0.91, [95% CI 0.78, 1.06], p?=?0.20) and CD (HR?=?0.85, [95% CI 0.65, 1.11], p?=?0.24). Pre-surgical ruptured membranes had no influence on CDA or CD development. CONCLUSION:: C-section is not associated with increased risk for CDA or CD in the offspring.</p>},
  author       = {Koletzko, Sibylle and Lee, Hye-Seung and Beyerlein, Andreas and Aronsson, Carin A. and Hummel, Michael and Liu, Edwin and Simell, Ville and Kurppa, Kalle and Lernmark, Åke and Hagopian, William and Rewers, Marian and She, Jin-Xiong and Simell, Olli and Toppari, Jorma and Ziegler, Anette G. and Krischer, Jeffrey and Agardh, Daniel and , },
  issn         = {0277-2116},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {07},
  publisher    = {Lippincott Williams & Wilkins},
  series       = {Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition},
  title        = {Caesarean Section on The Risk of Celiac Disease in the Offspring : The Teddy Study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000001682},
  year         = {2017},
}