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Alteration of the counterregulatory responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and of cognitive function after massive weight reduction in severely obese subjects

Guldstrand, Marie; Ahrén, Bo LU ; Wredling, Regina; Backman, Lars; Lins, Per Eric and Adamson, Ulf (2003) In Metabolism, Clinical and Experimental 52(7). p.900-907
Abstract
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are reported as activated in excess in the morbidly obese state and, therefore, changes after weight loss can be anticipated. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a massive (similar to30%) weight reduction on the activation of the HPA axis and the ANS following bariatric surgery. Eight (7 women, 1 man) severely obese (125 +/- 12 kg; body mass index [BMI], 45 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) nondiabetic subjects, underwent a 3-hour hyperinsulinemic (1,034 pmol/kg/h) glucose clamp study at hypoglycemia of arterial B-glucose concentration of 3.4 mmol/L. Cognitive function was evaluated by a visuospatial computerized problem-solving test, the Perceptual Maze Test... (More)
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are reported as activated in excess in the morbidly obese state and, therefore, changes after weight loss can be anticipated. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a massive (similar to30%) weight reduction on the activation of the HPA axis and the ANS following bariatric surgery. Eight (7 women, 1 man) severely obese (125 +/- 12 kg; body mass index [BMI], 45 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) nondiabetic subjects, underwent a 3-hour hyperinsulinemic (1,034 pmol/kg/h) glucose clamp study at hypoglycemia of arterial B-glucose concentration of 3.4 mmol/L. Cognitive function was evaluated by a visuospatial computerized problem-solving test, the Perceptual Maze Test (PMT). The mean weight loss was 40 +/- 9 kg approximately 12 months postsurgery when their weight was stabilized (85 6 kg; BMI, 31 +/- 3 kg/m(2)), and insulin sensitivity improved to an average increase of 376% +/- 250% (P < .01) of initial value. Before weight reduction, all patients demonstrated brisk peak responses in glucagon, epinephrine, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), norepinephrine, and cortisol, indicative of preserved or exaggerated activation of ANS and HPA axis. In the reduced-obese state, all these responses were attenuated and most markedly so for glucagon, which was totally abolished. In contrast, the growth hormone (GH) response was increased after weight reduction. The cognitive function was clearly modified by weight reduction both during normoglycemia and hypoglycemia and was changed preferentially to a speed-preferring strategy in the reduced-obese state compared with a more accuracy preferred problem-solving process of PMT test presurgery. These results demonstrate a reduction of the glucose counterregulatory hormonal responses, increased insulin sensitivity, and perturbed cognitive function after massive weight reduction. It may be speculated on if the increased insulin sensitivity and reduced counterregulation to hypoglycemia could predispose to low plasma glucose concentrations. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Metabolism, Clinical and Experimental
volume
52
issue
7
pages
900 - 907
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000184197500017
  • pmid:12870168
  • scopus:0041589511
ISSN
1532-8600
DOI
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
f206ac93-33b0-407b-aba6-ae122c101171 (old id 305901)
date added to LUP
2007-08-02 16:17:00
date last changed
2018-05-29 12:23:46
@article{f206ac93-33b0-407b-aba6-ae122c101171,
  abstract     = {The autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are reported as activated in excess in the morbidly obese state and, therefore, changes after weight loss can be anticipated. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a massive (similar to30%) weight reduction on the activation of the HPA axis and the ANS following bariatric surgery. Eight (7 women, 1 man) severely obese (125 +/- 12 kg; body mass index [BMI], 45 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) nondiabetic subjects, underwent a 3-hour hyperinsulinemic (1,034 pmol/kg/h) glucose clamp study at hypoglycemia of arterial B-glucose concentration of 3.4 mmol/L. Cognitive function was evaluated by a visuospatial computerized problem-solving test, the Perceptual Maze Test (PMT). The mean weight loss was 40 +/- 9 kg approximately 12 months postsurgery when their weight was stabilized (85 6 kg; BMI, 31 +/- 3 kg/m(2)), and insulin sensitivity improved to an average increase of 376% +/- 250% (P &lt; .01) of initial value. Before weight reduction, all patients demonstrated brisk peak responses in glucagon, epinephrine, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), norepinephrine, and cortisol, indicative of preserved or exaggerated activation of ANS and HPA axis. In the reduced-obese state, all these responses were attenuated and most markedly so for glucagon, which was totally abolished. In contrast, the growth hormone (GH) response was increased after weight reduction. The cognitive function was clearly modified by weight reduction both during normoglycemia and hypoglycemia and was changed preferentially to a speed-preferring strategy in the reduced-obese state compared with a more accuracy preferred problem-solving process of PMT test presurgery. These results demonstrate a reduction of the glucose counterregulatory hormonal responses, increased insulin sensitivity, and perturbed cognitive function after massive weight reduction. It may be speculated on if the increased insulin sensitivity and reduced counterregulation to hypoglycemia could predispose to low plasma glucose concentrations.},
  author       = {Guldstrand, Marie and Ahrén, Bo and Wredling, Regina and Backman, Lars and Lins, Per Eric and Adamson, Ulf},
  issn         = {1532-8600},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {900--907},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Metabolism, Clinical and Experimental},
  title        = {Alteration of the counterregulatory responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and of cognitive function after massive weight reduction in severely obese subjects},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/},
  volume       = {52},
  year         = {2003},
}