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Pancreatic α-cells – The unsung heroes in islet function

Wendt, Anna LU and Eliasson, Lena LU (2020) In Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology
Abstract

The pancreatic islets of Langerhans consist of several hormone-secreting cell types important for blood glucose control. The insulin secreting β-cells are the best studied of these cell types, but less is known about the glucagon secreting α-cells. The α-cells secrete glucagon as a response to low blood glucose. The major function of glucagon is to release glucose from the glycogen stores in the liver. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, glucagon secretion is dysregulated further exaggerating the hyperglycaemia, and in type 1 diabetes α-cells fail to counter regulate hypoglycaemia. Although glucagon has been recognized for almost 100 years, the understanding of how glucagon secretion is regulated and how glucagon act within the islet is... (More)

The pancreatic islets of Langerhans consist of several hormone-secreting cell types important for blood glucose control. The insulin secreting β-cells are the best studied of these cell types, but less is known about the glucagon secreting α-cells. The α-cells secrete glucagon as a response to low blood glucose. The major function of glucagon is to release glucose from the glycogen stores in the liver. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, glucagon secretion is dysregulated further exaggerating the hyperglycaemia, and in type 1 diabetes α-cells fail to counter regulate hypoglycaemia. Although glucagon has been recognized for almost 100 years, the understanding of how glucagon secretion is regulated and how glucagon act within the islet is far from complete. However, α-cell research has taken off lately which is promising for future knowledge. In this review we aim to highlight α-cell regulation and glucagon secretion with a special focus on recent discoveries from human islets. We will present some novel aspects of glucagon function and effects of selected glucose lowering agents on glucagon secretion.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
epub
subject
keywords
Alpha-cell, Diabetes, G-protein-coupled receptor, GLP-1, Glucagon, Insulin, Ion-channel, Islet, SGLT2, Somatostatin
in
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology
publisher
Academic Press
external identifiers
  • scopus:85078338781
  • pmid:31983511
ISSN
1084-9521
DOI
10.1016/j.semcdb.2020.01.006
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
311bfddd-8c5a-4819-be95-12d8251937c6
date added to LUP
2020-02-10 08:52:09
date last changed
2020-02-12 10:21:07
@article{311bfddd-8c5a-4819-be95-12d8251937c6,
  abstract     = {<p>The pancreatic islets of Langerhans consist of several hormone-secreting cell types important for blood glucose control. The insulin secreting β-cells are the best studied of these cell types, but less is known about the glucagon secreting α-cells. The α-cells secrete glucagon as a response to low blood glucose. The major function of glucagon is to release glucose from the glycogen stores in the liver. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, glucagon secretion is dysregulated further exaggerating the hyperglycaemia, and in type 1 diabetes α-cells fail to counter regulate hypoglycaemia. Although glucagon has been recognized for almost 100 years, the understanding of how glucagon secretion is regulated and how glucagon act within the islet is far from complete. However, α-cell research has taken off lately which is promising for future knowledge. In this review we aim to highlight α-cell regulation and glucagon secretion with a special focus on recent discoveries from human islets. We will present some novel aspects of glucagon function and effects of selected glucose lowering agents on glucagon secretion.</p>},
  author       = {Wendt, Anna and Eliasson, Lena},
  issn         = {1084-9521},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {01},
  publisher    = {Academic Press},
  series       = {Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology},
  title        = {Pancreatic α-cells – The unsung heroes in islet function},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2020.01.006},
  doi          = {10.1016/j.semcdb.2020.01.006},
  year         = {2020},
}