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The Metro Project: Final Report

Ingason, Haukur; Kumm, Mia; Nilsson, Daniel LU ; Lönnermark, Anders; Claesson, Alexander; Li, Y. Z.; Fridolf, Karl LU ; Åkerstedt, Rolf; Nyman, Hans and Dittmer, Torkel, et al. (2012) 2012:8.
Abstract
The report compiles the results from the METRO-project. The different parts of the project; design fires, evacuation, integrated fire control, smoke control, extraordinary strain on constructions and fire- and rescue operations are presented separately.



The most complicated and expensive part of the project was the performance of the large scale fire and explosion tests in the Brunsberg tunnel. The maximum heat release rates measured from the metro carriage was 77 MW. The maximum ceiling gas temperatures was 1118 °C. These values are high, and should be put into a perspective of the situation and the type of carriages used. The project is not recommending the highest values as the design fire, but values reflected in... (More)
The report compiles the results from the METRO-project. The different parts of the project; design fires, evacuation, integrated fire control, smoke control, extraordinary strain on constructions and fire- and rescue operations are presented separately.



The most complicated and expensive part of the project was the performance of the large scale fire and explosion tests in the Brunsberg tunnel. The maximum heat release rates measured from the metro carriage was 77 MW. The maximum ceiling gas temperatures was 1118 °C. These values are high, and should be put into a perspective of the situation and the type of carriages used. The project is not recommending the highest values as the design fire, but values reflected in conditions.



The egress study confirm that one of the major issues related to fire evacuation in underground transportation systems is that people often are reluctant to initiate an evacuation. New data show that participants moved with an average of 0.9 meters per second in the smoke filled environment (average visibility of 1.5–3.5 meters). A way-finding installation at the emergency exit, which consisted of a loudspeaker, was found to perform particularly well in terms of attracting people to the door.



Two smoke control systems were simulated for a single exit metro station. The systems consisted of a pressurizing supply air system and mechanical exhaust ventilation system with and without platform screen doors. The results show that both the pressurizing supply air system and the mechanical exhaust air system provide effective smoke control for one exit metro station. The significance of the platform screen doors was shown to be important in relation to smoke control.



Experiments and simulations have provided increased confidence in ability to simulate explosion scenarios to determine the pressure inside and outside a carriage and to be able to study variations of conditions such as carriage geometry and window designs. The explosion test performed show that an explosion with a relatively minor charge can significantly change the conditions for both evacuees and the rescue service. The results show that the conditions for evacuation and rescue operations can change dramatically as a result of a relatively minor explosion. Evaluation of methods and fire and rescue tactics in metros is given. Mapping of IR imaging as a tactical resource at tunnel fires was presented. (Less)
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organization
publishing date
type
Book/Report
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Fire, metro, tunnels, explosions, fire control, fire fighting
volume
2012:8
pages
115 pages
publisher
Mälardalen University Press
ISBN
978-91-7485-090-1
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
e86f1388-8b73-4177-85d3-927705a421bb (old id 3233403)
alternative location
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-16469
date added to LUP
2012-12-11 16:39:12
date last changed
2016-04-16 07:36:14
@techreport{e86f1388-8b73-4177-85d3-927705a421bb,
  abstract     = {The report compiles the results from the METRO-project. The different parts of the project; design fires, evacuation, integrated fire control, smoke control, extraordinary strain on constructions and fire- and rescue operations are presented separately.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The most complicated and expensive part of the project was the performance of the large scale fire and explosion tests in the Brunsberg tunnel. The maximum heat release rates measured from the metro carriage was 77 MW. The maximum ceiling gas temperatures was 1118 °C. These values are high, and should be put into a perspective of the situation and the type of carriages used. The project is not recommending the highest values as the design fire, but values reflected in conditions.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The egress study confirm that one of the major issues related to fire evacuation in underground transportation systems is that people often are reluctant to initiate an evacuation. New data show that participants moved with an average of 0.9 meters per second in the smoke filled environment (average visibility of 1.5–3.5 meters). A way-finding installation at the emergency exit, which consisted of a loudspeaker, was found to perform particularly well in terms of attracting people to the door.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Two smoke control systems were simulated for a single exit metro station. The systems consisted of a pressurizing supply air system and mechanical exhaust ventilation system with and without platform screen doors. The results show that both the pressurizing supply air system and the mechanical exhaust air system provide effective smoke control for one exit metro station. The significance of the platform screen doors was shown to be important in relation to smoke control. <br/><br>
<br/><br>
Experiments and simulations have provided increased confidence in ability to simulate explosion scenarios to determine the pressure inside and outside a carriage and to be able to study variations of conditions such as carriage geometry and window designs. The explosion test performed show that an explosion with a relatively minor charge can significantly change the conditions for both evacuees and the rescue service. The results show that the conditions for evacuation and rescue operations can change dramatically as a result of a relatively minor explosion. Evaluation of methods and fire and rescue tactics in metros is given. Mapping of IR imaging as a tactical resource at tunnel fires was presented.},
  author       = {Ingason, Haukur and Kumm, Mia and Nilsson, Daniel and Lönnermark, Anders and Claesson, Alexander and Li, Y. Z. and Fridolf, Karl and Åkerstedt, Rolf and Nyman, Hans and Dittmer, Torkel and Forsén, Rickard and Janzon, B. and Meyer, Gero and Bryntse, A. and Carlberg, T. and Newlove-Eriksson, L. and Palm, Anders},
  institution  = {Mälardalen University Press},
  isbn         = {978-91-7485-090-1},
  keyword      = {Fire,metro,tunnels,explosions,fire control,fire fighting},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {115},
  title        = {The Metro Project: Final Report},
  volume       = {2012:8},
  year         = {2012},
}