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Morphological and functional characterization of a rat vaginal smooth muscle sphincter

Giraldi, A; Alm, Per LU ; Werkström, Viktoria LU ; Myllymaki, L; Wagner, G and Andersson, Karl-Erik LU (2002) In International Journal of Impotence Research 14(4). p.271-282
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to gain information about adrenergic-, cholinergic- and nonadrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC)- transmitter systems/mediators in the rat vagina, and to characterize its smooth muscles functionally. Tissue sections from vagina of Sprague Dawley rats were immunolabelled with antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), synaptophysin (Syn), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Circularly cut vaginal smooth muscle preparations from the distal vagina were studied in organ baths. In... (More)
The aim of the present study was to gain information about adrenergic-, cholinergic- and nonadrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC)- transmitter systems/mediators in the rat vagina, and to characterize its smooth muscles functionally. Tissue sections from vagina of Sprague Dawley rats were immunolabelled with antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), synaptophysin (Syn), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Circularly cut vaginal smooth muscle preparations from the distal vagina were studied in organ baths. In the paravaginal tissue, a large number of PGP-, NOS-, TH-, VIP-immunoreactive (IR) and few CGRP-IR nerve trunks were observed, giving off branches to the smooth muscle wall. The smooth muscle wall was supplied by a large number of PGP-, Syn-, VAChT-, NPY-, NOS- and TH- IR nerve terminals, whilst only a moderate to few numbers of CGRP-, VIP- and PACAP-IR terminals were identified. Especially the distal part of the vaginal wall, where the circularly running smooth muscle was thickened into a distinct sphincter structure, was very richly innervated, predominantly by PGP- and NOS-IR terminals. Below and within the basal parts of the epithelium in the distal half of the vagina, a large number of PGP- and few NOS- and PACAP-IR varicose terminals were observed. The vaginal arteries were encircled by plexuses of nerve terminals. A large number of these were PGP-, Syn-, VAChT-, NOS-, TH-, NPY- and VIP-IR, and few were CGRP- and PACAP-IR. In isolated preparations of the distal vagina, electrical field stimulation (EFS) caused frequency-dependent contractions, which were reduced by sildenafil, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and phentolamine. In preparations contracted by norepinephrine (NA), EFS produced frequency-dependent relaxations. Pretreatment with the NOS-inhibitor N-G-nitro-L-arginine, TTX, or the inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, ODQ, abolished the EFS relaxations. In NE precontracted preparations, cumulative addition of sildenafil caused concentration-dependent relaxation. Carbachol contracted the strips concentration-dependently from baseline. It can be concluded that the distal part of the rat vagina forms a distinct smooth muscle sphincter, which is richly innervated by adrenergic, cholinergic and NANC nerves. The present studies suggest that in the rat the L-arginine/NO-system not only plays an important role in the regulation of vaginal smooth muscle tone, but also affects blood flow, and may have sensory functions. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
vagina, smooth muscle, rat, sexual function, female, organ bath, immunohistochemistry
in
International Journal of Impotence Research
volume
14
issue
4
pages
271 - 282
publisher
Nature Publishing Group
external identifiers
  • pmid:12152117
  • wos:000177393400010
  • scopus:0036668542
ISSN
1476-5489
DOI
10.1038/sj.ijir.3900886
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
7113ffbe-081a-40e8-a893-3519b2fe32f7 (old id 331658)
date added to LUP
2007-08-20 16:22:22
date last changed
2017-11-12 03:22:17
@article{7113ffbe-081a-40e8-a893-3519b2fe32f7,
  abstract     = {The aim of the present study was to gain information about adrenergic-, cholinergic- and nonadrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC)- transmitter systems/mediators in the rat vagina, and to characterize its smooth muscles functionally. Tissue sections from vagina of Sprague Dawley rats were immunolabelled with antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), synaptophysin (Syn), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Circularly cut vaginal smooth muscle preparations from the distal vagina were studied in organ baths. In the paravaginal tissue, a large number of PGP-, NOS-, TH-, VIP-immunoreactive (IR) and few CGRP-IR nerve trunks were observed, giving off branches to the smooth muscle wall. The smooth muscle wall was supplied by a large number of PGP-, Syn-, VAChT-, NPY-, NOS- and TH- IR nerve terminals, whilst only a moderate to few numbers of CGRP-, VIP- and PACAP-IR terminals were identified. Especially the distal part of the vaginal wall, where the circularly running smooth muscle was thickened into a distinct sphincter structure, was very richly innervated, predominantly by PGP- and NOS-IR terminals. Below and within the basal parts of the epithelium in the distal half of the vagina, a large number of PGP- and few NOS- and PACAP-IR varicose terminals were observed. The vaginal arteries were encircled by plexuses of nerve terminals. A large number of these were PGP-, Syn-, VAChT-, NOS-, TH-, NPY- and VIP-IR, and few were CGRP- and PACAP-IR. In isolated preparations of the distal vagina, electrical field stimulation (EFS) caused frequency-dependent contractions, which were reduced by sildenafil, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and phentolamine. In preparations contracted by norepinephrine (NA), EFS produced frequency-dependent relaxations. Pretreatment with the NOS-inhibitor N-G-nitro-L-arginine, TTX, or the inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, ODQ, abolished the EFS relaxations. In NE precontracted preparations, cumulative addition of sildenafil caused concentration-dependent relaxation. Carbachol contracted the strips concentration-dependently from baseline. It can be concluded that the distal part of the rat vagina forms a distinct smooth muscle sphincter, which is richly innervated by adrenergic, cholinergic and NANC nerves. The present studies suggest that in the rat the L-arginine/NO-system not only plays an important role in the regulation of vaginal smooth muscle tone, but also affects blood flow, and may have sensory functions.},
  author       = {Giraldi, A and Alm, Per and Werkström, Viktoria and Myllymaki, L and Wagner, G and Andersson, Karl-Erik},
  issn         = {1476-5489},
  keyword      = {vagina,smooth muscle,rat,sexual function,female,organ bath,immunohistochemistry},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {271--282},
  publisher    = {Nature Publishing Group},
  series       = {International Journal of Impotence Research},
  title        = {Morphological and functional characterization of a rat vaginal smooth muscle sphincter},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijir.3900886},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2002},
}