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High incidence of mental disorders, reduced mental well-being and cognitive function in hypopituitary women with GH deficiency treated for pituitary disease

Bülow, Birgitta LU ; Hagmar, Lars LU ; Ørbaek, Palle LU ; Österberg, Kai LU and Erfurth, Eva Marie LU (2002) In Clinical Endocrinology 56(2). p.183-193
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown possible neuroendocrine effects of GH. In the present study we investigated the incidence of mental disorders and the prevalence of mental distress and cognitive dysfunction in hypopituitary women with untreated GH deficiency compared to population-based controls.

DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Thirty-three hypopituitary women with a median age of 64 years (range 39--77 years) were investigated cross-sectionally, without any change in hormone substitutions. Twenty-nine of the patients had been operated for a pituitary tumour, 25 had received radiotherapy and 15 had visual dysfunction. The patients were with a very high probability GH deficient, as 29 had subnormal IGF-I levels and the other four were... (More)

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown possible neuroendocrine effects of GH. In the present study we investigated the incidence of mental disorders and the prevalence of mental distress and cognitive dysfunction in hypopituitary women with untreated GH deficiency compared to population-based controls.

DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Thirty-three hypopituitary women with a median age of 64 years (range 39--77 years) were investigated cross-sectionally, without any change in hormone substitutions. Twenty-nine of the patients had been operated for a pituitary tumour, 25 had received radiotherapy and 15 had visual dysfunction. The patients were with a very high probability GH deficient, as 29 had subnormal IGF-I levels and the other four were GH deficient as assessed by an insulin tolerance test. The patients were compared with 33 controls matched for sex, age, smoking habits, educational level and residence.

MEASUREMENTS: The incidence of mental disorders was calculated from the date of diagnosed hypopituitarism to the time of the present investigation. Mental well-being was assessed by three self-rating questionnaires: the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI) and the social network concept. The subjects were examined with neuropsychological tests of vocabulary (SRB:1 vocabulary test), perceptual speed (WAIS-R Digit Symbol), spatial ability (WAIS-R Block Design), verbal memory (Cronholm--Molander verbal memory test), spatial learning (Austin Maze Test) and reaction time (APT Two-way Reaction Time and APT Inhibition).

RESULTS: The hypopituitary women had a higher incidence of mental disorders than the controls; Incidence Rate Ratio 4.5 (95% CI 1.0--21). The Global Severity Index, i.e. the average score of all 90 questions of the SCL-90, was higher in patients (P = 0.001), and the patients had significantly more symptoms of somatization, anxiety, depression, obsession--compulsion, hostility--irritability, phobic and psychotic symptoms (all P less-than-or-equal 0.04). Moreover, 14 patients compared to four controls were classified as possible cases of mental distress according to the SCL-90 (P = 0.006). The patients experienced lower availability of both social attachment (P = 0.02) and integration (P = 0.001), but there were no group differences in the adequacy of these dimensions or in emotional support. The patients had lower scores in four of seven neuropsychological tests (all P less-than-or-equal 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS: The hypopituitary women had a higher incidence of mental disorders, more symptoms of mental distress and increased prevalence of cognitive dysfunction. The impaired results in the patients could possibly be explained by several factors, such as transfrontal surgery, radiotherapy, visual dysfunction and unphysiological hormone substitution. Moreover, it is probable that GH deficiency contributed, but placebo-controlled double-blind studies are warranted to investigate whether the psychological dysfunction is reversible on GH substitution.

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keywords
Aged, Cognition Disorders/blood/etiology, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Human, Hypopituitarism/blood/*psychology, Incidence, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis, Mental Disorders/blood/*etiology, Middle Age, Psychiatric Status Rating Scales, Non-U.S. Gov't, Support, Nonparametric, Somatotropin/*deficiency, Statistics, Adult, Case-Control Studies
in
Clinical Endocrinology
volume
56
issue
2
pages
11 pages
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • wos:000174221000008
  • scopus:0036127172
ISSN
1365-2265
DOI
10.1046/j.0300-0664.2001.01461.x
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
c5daa473-2554-4f0f-a7e6-2a32a9469170 (old id 342628)
date added to LUP
2007-08-13 09:51:17
date last changed
2017-10-01 03:43:38
@article{c5daa473-2554-4f0f-a7e6-2a32a9469170,
  abstract     = {<p>OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown possible neuroendocrine effects of GH. In the present study we investigated the incidence of mental disorders and the prevalence of mental distress and cognitive dysfunction in hypopituitary women with untreated GH deficiency compared to population-based controls.</p><p>DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Thirty-three hypopituitary women with a median age of 64 years (range 39--77 years) were investigated cross-sectionally, without any change in hormone substitutions. Twenty-nine of the patients had been operated for a pituitary tumour, 25 had received radiotherapy and 15 had visual dysfunction. The patients were with a very high probability GH deficient, as 29 had subnormal IGF-I levels and the other four were GH deficient as assessed by an insulin tolerance test. The patients were compared with 33 controls matched for sex, age, smoking habits, educational level and residence.</p><p>MEASUREMENTS: The incidence of mental disorders was calculated from the date of diagnosed hypopituitarism to the time of the present investigation. Mental well-being was assessed by three self-rating questionnaires: the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI) and the social network concept. The subjects were examined with neuropsychological tests of vocabulary (SRB:1 vocabulary test), perceptual speed (WAIS-R Digit Symbol), spatial ability (WAIS-R Block Design), verbal memory (Cronholm--Molander verbal memory test), spatial learning (Austin Maze Test) and reaction time (APT Two-way Reaction Time and APT Inhibition).</p><p>RESULTS: The hypopituitary women had a higher incidence of mental disorders than the controls; Incidence Rate Ratio 4.5 (95% CI 1.0--21). The Global Severity Index, i.e. the average score of all 90 questions of the SCL-90, was higher in patients (P = 0.001), and the patients had significantly more symptoms of somatization, anxiety, depression, obsession--compulsion, hostility--irritability, phobic and psychotic symptoms (all P less-than-or-equal 0.04). Moreover, 14 patients compared to four controls were classified as possible cases of mental distress according to the SCL-90 (P = 0.006). The patients experienced lower availability of both social attachment (P = 0.02) and integration (P = 0.001), but there were no group differences in the adequacy of these dimensions or in emotional support. The patients had lower scores in four of seven neuropsychological tests (all P less-than-or-equal 0.04).</p><p>CONCLUSIONS: The hypopituitary women had a higher incidence of mental disorders, more symptoms of mental distress and increased prevalence of cognitive dysfunction. The impaired results in the patients could possibly be explained by several factors, such as transfrontal surgery, radiotherapy, visual dysfunction and unphysiological hormone substitution. Moreover, it is probable that GH deficiency contributed, but placebo-controlled double-blind studies are warranted to investigate whether the psychological dysfunction is reversible on GH substitution.</p>},
  author       = {Bülow, Birgitta and Hagmar, Lars and Ørbaek, Palle and Österberg, Kai and Erfurth, Eva Marie},
  issn         = {1365-2265},
  keyword      = {Aged,Cognition Disorders/blood/etiology,Cross-Sectional Studies,Female,Human,Hypopituitarism/blood/*psychology,Incidence,Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis,Mental Disorders/blood/*etiology,Middle Age,Psychiatric Status Rating Scales,Non-U.S. Gov't,Support,Nonparametric,Somatotropin/*deficiency,Statistics,Adult,Case-Control Studies},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {183--193},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {Clinical Endocrinology},
  title        = {High incidence of mental disorders, reduced mental well-being and cognitive function in hypopituitary women with GH deficiency treated for pituitary disease},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0300-0664.2001.01461.x},
  volume       = {56},
  year         = {2002},
}