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Fate and effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from dumped ammunition in a field study with fish and invertebrates

Ek, H ; Dave, G ; Nilsson, E ; Sturve, J and Birgersson, Göran LU (2006) In Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 51(2). p.244-252
Abstract
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the major explosive ingredient in ammunition dumped into lakes and sea after World War II. The aim of the present field study was to study the fate and effect of TNT and its degradation products from dumped ammunition. Artillery shells were cleaved longitudinally to expose TNT and placed in open boxes filled with sediment, and then placed at the sea bottom. Sediment samples were taken in each box at the start and after 3, 9, 13, 20, 24, 33, and 36 months, and the sediments were tested for toxicity with bioassays using Nitocra spinipes (96 h), Hyalella azteca (96 h), and Daphnia magna (24 and 48 h). The result from the bioassays showed no impact of dumped ammunition on the survival of H. azteca and mobility of... (More)
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the major explosive ingredient in ammunition dumped into lakes and sea after World War II. The aim of the present field study was to study the fate and effect of TNT and its degradation products from dumped ammunition. Artillery shells were cleaved longitudinally to expose TNT and placed in open boxes filled with sediment, and then placed at the sea bottom. Sediment samples were taken in each box at the start and after 3, 9, 13, 20, 24, 33, and 36 months, and the sediments were tested for toxicity with bioassays using Nitocra spinipes (96 h), Hyalella azteca (96 h), and Daphnia magna (24 and 48 h). The result from the bioassays showed no impact of dumped ammunition on the survival of H. azteca and mobility of D. magna. Bioassays with N. spinipes showed significant differences in toxicity between control boxes and boxes with shells after 9 months and thereafter. The mean mortality (+/- SD) of N. spinipes in boxes with shells was 63 +/- 22%, and the mortality in control boxes was 23 +/- 17%. No continuous increase in sediment toxicity over time was found. After 3 years, cages with European flounder (Platichtys flesus) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were attached to the boxes. The fish were examined for biochemical and physiological effects 8 weeks later. Exposure to ammunition, which had rested on the sea bottom 3 years, caused no significant effects on body indices, hematological variables, and detoxification and antioxidant enzymes activities in the flounder. The sediment, bile, and blood plasma of exposed fish, and hepatopancreas of exposed mussels, contained no detectable levels of TNT and its metabolites. Only minor disappearance of TNT from the shells could be detected by visual inspection on site (by scuba divers). This study suggests that the survival of sensitive benthic organisms, e.g., N. spinipes, might be negatively affected at an ammunition dumping site. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
volume
51
issue
2
pages
244 - 252
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • wos:000238362100011
  • pmid:16783622
  • scopus:33745240985
ISSN
0090-4341
DOI
10.1007/s00244-005-0117-5
language
English
LU publication?
yes
additional info
The information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015. The record was previously connected to the following departments: Chemical Ecology/Ecotoxicology (Closed 2011) (011006020)
id
35b9cbb5-5994-4db5-ba4c-84cf9f7ce49e (old id 159640)
date added to LUP
2016-04-01 12:14:47
date last changed
2019-10-29 02:10:49
@article{35b9cbb5-5994-4db5-ba4c-84cf9f7ce49e,
  abstract     = {2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the major explosive ingredient in ammunition dumped into lakes and sea after World War II. The aim of the present field study was to study the fate and effect of TNT and its degradation products from dumped ammunition. Artillery shells were cleaved longitudinally to expose TNT and placed in open boxes filled with sediment, and then placed at the sea bottom. Sediment samples were taken in each box at the start and after 3, 9, 13, 20, 24, 33, and 36 months, and the sediments were tested for toxicity with bioassays using Nitocra spinipes (96 h), Hyalella azteca (96 h), and Daphnia magna (24 and 48 h). The result from the bioassays showed no impact of dumped ammunition on the survival of H. azteca and mobility of D. magna. Bioassays with N. spinipes showed significant differences in toxicity between control boxes and boxes with shells after 9 months and thereafter. The mean mortality (+/- SD) of N. spinipes in boxes with shells was 63 +/- 22%, and the mortality in control boxes was 23 +/- 17%. No continuous increase in sediment toxicity over time was found. After 3 years, cages with European flounder (Platichtys flesus) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were attached to the boxes. The fish were examined for biochemical and physiological effects 8 weeks later. Exposure to ammunition, which had rested on the sea bottom 3 years, caused no significant effects on body indices, hematological variables, and detoxification and antioxidant enzymes activities in the flounder. The sediment, bile, and blood plasma of exposed fish, and hepatopancreas of exposed mussels, contained no detectable levels of TNT and its metabolites. Only minor disappearance of TNT from the shells could be detected by visual inspection on site (by scuba divers). This study suggests that the survival of sensitive benthic organisms, e.g., N. spinipes, might be negatively affected at an ammunition dumping site.},
  author       = {Ek, H and Dave, G and Nilsson, E and Sturve, J and Birgersson, Göran},
  issn         = {0090-4341},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {244--252},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology},
  title        = {Fate and effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from dumped ammunition in a field study with fish and invertebrates},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-005-0117-5},
  doi          = {10.1007/s00244-005-0117-5},
  volume       = {51},
  year         = {2006},
}