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Fetal overgrowth in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Ladfors, Linnea; Shaat, Nael LU ; Wiberg, Nana LU ; Katasarou, Anastasia LU ; Berntorp, Kerstin LU and Kristensen, Karl LU (2017) In PLoS ONE 12(11).
Abstract

Objectives: Despite improved glycemic control, the rate of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants remains high in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM). Poor glycemic control, obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain are the main risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the relative contribution of these risk factors for LGA in women with T1DM and T2DM, after controlling for important confounders such as age, smoking, and parity. Methods: In this retrospective chart review study, we analyzed the medical files of pregnant women with T1DM and T2DM who attended the antenatal care program at Skåne University Hospital during the years 2006 to 2016. HbA1c was used as a measure of... (More)

Objectives: Despite improved glycemic control, the rate of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants remains high in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM). Poor glycemic control, obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain are the main risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the relative contribution of these risk factors for LGA in women with T1DM and T2DM, after controlling for important confounders such as age, smoking, and parity. Methods: In this retrospective chart review study, we analyzed the medical files of pregnant women with T1DM and T2DM who attended the antenatal care program at Skåne University Hospital during the years 2006 to 2016. HbA1c was used as a measure of glycemic control. Maternal weight in early pregnancy and at term was registered. LGA was defined as birth weight > 2 standard deviations of the mean. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR’s) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for LGA. Results: Over the 11-year period, we identified 308 singleton pregnancies in 221 women with T1DM and in 87 women with T2DM. The rate of LGA was 50% in women with T1DM and 23% in women with T2DM. The multivariable regression model identified gestational weight gain and second-trimester HbA1c as risk factors for LGA in T1DM pregnancies (OR = 1.107, 95% CI: 1.044–1.17, and OR = 1.047, 95% CI: 1.015–1.080, respectively) and gestational weight gain as a risk factor in T2DM pregnancies (OR = 1.175, 95% CI: 1.048–1.318), independent of body mass index. Conclusions: Gestational weight gain was associated with LGA in women with T1DM and T2DM, independent of maternal body mass index. The findings suggest that monitoring and regulation of gestational weight gain is important in the clinical care of these women, to minimize the risk of fetal overgrowth.

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author
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type
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publication status
published
subject
in
PLoS ONE
volume
12
issue
11
publisher
Public Library of Science
external identifiers
  • scopus:85033800395
  • wos:000414769900094
ISSN
1932-6203
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0187917
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
362be95f-a1e7-4b3f-83b3-1fb2c21b9346
date added to LUP
2017-12-08 10:04:17
date last changed
2018-05-14 14:51:01
@article{362be95f-a1e7-4b3f-83b3-1fb2c21b9346,
  abstract     = {<p>Objectives: Despite improved glycemic control, the rate of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants remains high in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM). Poor glycemic control, obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain are the main risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the relative contribution of these risk factors for LGA in women with T1DM and T2DM, after controlling for important confounders such as age, smoking, and parity. Methods: In this retrospective chart review study, we analyzed the medical files of pregnant women with T1DM and T2DM who attended the antenatal care program at Skåne University Hospital during the years 2006 to 2016. HbA1c was used as a measure of glycemic control. Maternal weight in early pregnancy and at term was registered. LGA was defined as birth weight &gt; 2 standard deviations of the mean. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR’s) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for LGA. Results: Over the 11-year period, we identified 308 singleton pregnancies in 221 women with T1DM and in 87 women with T2DM. The rate of LGA was 50% in women with T1DM and 23% in women with T2DM. The multivariable regression model identified gestational weight gain and second-trimester HbA1c as risk factors for LGA in T1DM pregnancies (OR = 1.107, 95% CI: 1.044–1.17, and OR = 1.047, 95% CI: 1.015–1.080, respectively) and gestational weight gain as a risk factor in T2DM pregnancies (OR = 1.175, 95% CI: 1.048–1.318), independent of body mass index. Conclusions: Gestational weight gain was associated with LGA in women with T1DM and T2DM, independent of maternal body mass index. The findings suggest that monitoring and regulation of gestational weight gain is important in the clinical care of these women, to minimize the risk of fetal overgrowth.</p>},
  articleno    = {e0187917},
  author       = {Ladfors, Linnea and Shaat, Nael and Wiberg, Nana and Katasarou, Anastasia and Berntorp, Kerstin and Kristensen, Karl},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {11},
  number       = {11},
  publisher    = {Public Library of Science},
  series       = {PLoS ONE},
  title        = {Fetal overgrowth in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187917},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2017},
}