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Air contaminants in a submarine equipped with air independent propulsion

Persson, Ola ; Ostberg, Christina ; Pagels, Joakim LU and Sebastian, Aleksandra LU (2006) In Journal of Environmental Monitoring 8(11). p.1111-1121
Abstract
The Swedish Navy has operated submarines equipped with air independent propulsion for two decades. This type of submarine can stay submerged for periods far longer than other nonnuclear submarines are capable of. The air quality during longer periods of submersion has so far not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents results for a number of air quality parameters obtained during more than one week of continuous submerged operation. The measured parameters are pressure, temperature, relative humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter and microbiological contaminants. The measurements of airborne particles demonstrate that air... (More)
The Swedish Navy has operated submarines equipped with air independent propulsion for two decades. This type of submarine can stay submerged for periods far longer than other nonnuclear submarines are capable of. The air quality during longer periods of submersion has so far not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents results for a number of air quality parameters obtained during more than one week of continuous submerged operation. The measured parameters are pressure, temperature, relative humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter and microbiological contaminants. The measurements of airborne particles demonstrate that air pollutants typically occur at a low baseline level due to high air exchange rates and efficient air-cleaning devices. However, short-lived peaks with comparatively high concentrations occur, several of the sources for these have been identified. The concentrations of the pollutants measured in this study do not indicate a build-up of hazardous compounds during eight days of submersion. It is reasonable to assume that a substantial build-up of the investigated contaminants is not likely if the submersion period is prolonged several times, which is the case for modern submarines equipped with air independent propulsion. (Less)
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author
; ; and
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Journal of Environmental Monitoring
volume
8
issue
11
pages
1111 - 1121
publisher
Royal Society of Chemistry
external identifiers
  • wos:000241648500002
  • scopus:33750572454
ISSN
1464-0325
DOI
10.1039/b605331a
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
795a7828-acf8-46d9-ad5c-5478db62f233 (old id 378815)
date added to LUP
2016-04-01 11:40:13
date last changed
2021-08-11 03:25:26
@article{795a7828-acf8-46d9-ad5c-5478db62f233,
  abstract     = {The Swedish Navy has operated submarines equipped with air independent propulsion for two decades. This type of submarine can stay submerged for periods far longer than other nonnuclear submarines are capable of. The air quality during longer periods of submersion has so far not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents results for a number of air quality parameters obtained during more than one week of continuous submerged operation. The measured parameters are pressure, temperature, relative humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter and microbiological contaminants. The measurements of airborne particles demonstrate that air pollutants typically occur at a low baseline level due to high air exchange rates and efficient air-cleaning devices. However, short-lived peaks with comparatively high concentrations occur, several of the sources for these have been identified. The concentrations of the pollutants measured in this study do not indicate a build-up of hazardous compounds during eight days of submersion. It is reasonable to assume that a substantial build-up of the investigated contaminants is not likely if the submersion period is prolonged several times, which is the case for modern submarines equipped with air independent propulsion.},
  author       = {Persson, Ola and Ostberg, Christina and Pagels, Joakim and Sebastian, Aleksandra},
  issn         = {1464-0325},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1111--1121},
  publisher    = {Royal Society of Chemistry},
  series       = {Journal of Environmental Monitoring},
  title        = {Air contaminants in a submarine equipped with air independent propulsion},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b605331a},
  doi          = {10.1039/b605331a},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2006},
}