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Essays on R&D and Growth

Braconier, Henrik LU (1998) In Lund economic studies 72.
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to analyze some aspects of the relationship between R&D and economic growth.



In Chapter 2 we analyze how costly imitation may be incorporated into an R&D-driven endogenous growth model. In the model, optimizing firms allocate resources to innovation or imitation. Thus, the extent of technology diffusion through imitation is endogenously determined. Costs of imitation tend to limit the extent of technology diffusion in the economy. Furthermore, firms engage R&D-resources in imitation which, in contrast to innovation, only has a private return. The analysis shows that the growth rate will be tied to the labor supply per firm. Hence, we find no direct scale effects with large... (More)
The purpose of this study is to analyze some aspects of the relationship between R&D and economic growth.



In Chapter 2 we analyze how costly imitation may be incorporated into an R&D-driven endogenous growth model. In the model, optimizing firms allocate resources to innovation or imitation. Thus, the extent of technology diffusion through imitation is endogenously determined. Costs of imitation tend to limit the extent of technology diffusion in the economy. Furthermore, firms engage R&D-resources in imitation which, in contrast to innovation, only has a private return. The analysis shows that the growth rate will be tied to the labor supply per firm. Hence, we find no direct scale effects with large countries growing faster than small countries.



In Chapter 3 we study empirically how R&D affects growth in a cross-section of 62 countries. More specifically we study whether the absolute amount of R&D conducted or the R&D-intensity in terms of GDP or population affects the growth rate. We find no scale effects from R&D, i.e. the absolute amount of R&D conducted does not affect the growth rate. The R&D-intensity variables have a significant impact on the growth rate. Furthermore, we introduce the possibility of international technology diffusion through R&D into the analysis. In the case of poorer countries, R&D seems to facilitate international technology diffusion.



Chapter 4 examines whether R&D affects productivity growth within the manufacturing sector in six large OECD-countries. We study effects from R&D conducted both within the industry and in other industries in the manufacturing sector. We also study the extent of international spillovers from R&D. We use both a traditional productivity approach and an endogenous growth approach to the accumulation of R&D stocks in order to study the effects of R&D on productivity growth. We find effects from domestic and foreign within-industry R&D in the endogenous growth approach, but find no evidence of inter-industry spillovers from R&D.



In Chapter 5 we continue the analysis from chapter 4. Specifically, we study whether R&D embodied in input-goods may affect productivity growth. Both domestically produced input-goods and foreign produced input-goods are included in the analysis. Furthermore, we study whether R&D may be transferred through direct foreign investment (DFI) and hence affect productivity growth. Based on the endogenous growth approach, we find that R&D transferred through DFI affects productivity growth, but no effect from R&D embodied in input-goods.



Chapter 6 studies whether higher per capita incomes leads to more R&D per capita within a group of OECD-countries. The results shows that the income-elasticity of R&D is very high. We also analyze the importance of foreign demand on R&D expenditures and find a positive and significant effect. Econometric tests suggest that there may exist a two-way relationship between GDP per capita and R&D. Consequently, we estimate a GDP equation and an R&D equation with instrumental variable methods. The results still show a high income-elasticity of R&D expenditures. The instrumental variable estimation however suggests that studying the effect of R&D on productivity with ordinary least squares may seriously overestimate these effects. (Less)
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author
opponent
  • Prof Baldwin, Richard E, Graduate Institute of International Economics, Geneva
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
International commerce, Technology, Scale effects, Innovation, Imitation, R& D, Endogenous Growth, Internationell ekonomi
in
Lund economic studies
volume
72
pages
148 pages
publisher
Department of Economics, Lund Universtiy
defense location
Crafoordsalen, Holger Crafoords Ekonomicentrum 1
defense date
1998-03-14 10:00
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN: LUSADG/SANA-98/1054-SE
ISSN
0460-0029
ISBN
91-628-2868-1
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
e2fc30a7-b2f2-44db-9bc9-7b6b3a2559a1 (old id 38425)
date added to LUP
2007-07-31 15:41:49
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:59
@phdthesis{e2fc30a7-b2f2-44db-9bc9-7b6b3a2559a1,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this study is to analyze some aspects of the relationship between R&amp;D and economic growth.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In Chapter 2 we analyze how costly imitation may be incorporated into an R&amp;D-driven endogenous growth model. In the model, optimizing firms allocate resources to innovation or imitation. Thus, the extent of technology diffusion through imitation is endogenously determined. Costs of imitation tend to limit the extent of technology diffusion in the economy. Furthermore, firms engage R&amp;D-resources in imitation which, in contrast to innovation, only has a private return. The analysis shows that the growth rate will be tied to the labor supply per firm. Hence, we find no direct scale effects with large countries growing faster than small countries.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In Chapter 3 we study empirically how R&amp;D affects growth in a cross-section of 62 countries. More specifically we study whether the absolute amount of R&amp;D conducted or the R&amp;D-intensity in terms of GDP or population affects the growth rate. We find no scale effects from R&amp;D, i.e. the absolute amount of R&amp;D conducted does not affect the growth rate. The R&amp;D-intensity variables have a significant impact on the growth rate. Furthermore, we introduce the possibility of international technology diffusion through R&amp;D into the analysis. In the case of poorer countries, R&amp;D seems to facilitate international technology diffusion.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Chapter 4 examines whether R&amp;D affects productivity growth within the manufacturing sector in six large OECD-countries. We study effects from R&amp;D conducted both within the industry and in other industries in the manufacturing sector. We also study the extent of international spillovers from R&amp;D. We use both a traditional productivity approach and an endogenous growth approach to the accumulation of R&amp;D stocks in order to study the effects of R&amp;D on productivity growth. We find effects from domestic and foreign within-industry R&amp;D in the endogenous growth approach, but find no evidence of inter-industry spillovers from R&amp;D.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In Chapter 5 we continue the analysis from chapter 4. Specifically, we study whether R&amp;D embodied in input-goods may affect productivity growth. Both domestically produced input-goods and foreign produced input-goods are included in the analysis. Furthermore, we study whether R&amp;D may be transferred through direct foreign investment (DFI) and hence affect productivity growth. Based on the endogenous growth approach, we find that R&amp;D transferred through DFI affects productivity growth, but no effect from R&amp;D embodied in input-goods.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Chapter 6 studies whether higher per capita incomes leads to more R&amp;D per capita within a group of OECD-countries. The results shows that the income-elasticity of R&amp;D is very high. We also analyze the importance of foreign demand on R&amp;D expenditures and find a positive and significant effect. Econometric tests suggest that there may exist a two-way relationship between GDP per capita and R&amp;D. Consequently, we estimate a GDP equation and an R&amp;D equation with instrumental variable methods. The results still show a high income-elasticity of R&amp;D expenditures. The instrumental variable estimation however suggests that studying the effect of R&amp;D on productivity with ordinary least squares may seriously overestimate these effects.},
  author       = {Braconier, Henrik},
  isbn         = {91-628-2868-1},
  issn         = {0460-0029},
  keyword      = {International commerce,Technology,Scale effects,Innovation,Imitation,R& D,Endogenous Growth,Internationell ekonomi},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {148},
  publisher    = {Department of Economics, Lund Universtiy},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund economic studies},
  title        = {Essays on R&D and Growth},
  volume       = {72},
  year         = {1998},
}