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Effects of lifestyle factors on concentrations of salivary cortisol in healthy individuals

Garde, A. H.; Persson, Roger LU ; Hansen, A. M.; Österberg, Kai LU ; Orbaek, P.; Eek, Frida LU and Karlson, Björn LU (2009) In Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation 69(2). p.242-250
Abstract
Objective . Salivary cortisol is widely used in occupational health research. However, many ordinary daily activities can influence the concentrations of cortisol and the interpretation of field studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lifestyle factors on salivary cortisol in everyday settings. Material and methods . Healthy employees participated in one or more sub-studies on the effect of eating a vegetable salad versus protein-rich mid-day meal (n=40), drinking coffee and smoking (n=12), drinking alcohol (n=32), awakening at different times (n=29) and exercising (n=21). Cortisol in saliva was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results . When eating a mid-day meal, salivary cortisol was increased by 10 % (CI... (More)
Objective . Salivary cortisol is widely used in occupational health research. However, many ordinary daily activities can influence the concentrations of cortisol and the interpretation of field studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lifestyle factors on salivary cortisol in everyday settings. Material and methods . Healthy employees participated in one or more sub-studies on the effect of eating a vegetable salad versus protein-rich mid-day meal (n=40), drinking coffee and smoking (n=12), drinking alcohol (n=32), awakening at different times (n=29) and exercising (n=21). Cortisol in saliva was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results . When eating a mid-day meal, salivary cortisol was increased by 10 % (CI -1 % to 24 %) 1 h after eating compared to before eating in the case of both types of meal. Salivary cortisol increased by 80 % (CI 9 % to 199 %) after exercising compared to before exercise. The relative awakening response was approximately 100 % when using an alarm clock on both work-days and days off. However, the awakening response was 39 % (CI 10 % to 75 %) on a day off with spontaneous awakening. No effects of alcohol, coffee or smoking were observed. Discussion . In field studies, the biological variation in salivary cortisol may be reduced by restricting physical exercise and in collecting pre-meal samples. However, the protein content of food and moderate consumption of alcohol had no effect on concentrations of cortisol. Differences in relative awakening responses on work-days and days off are related to time and mode of awakening. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
smoking, saliva, food, field study, exercise, coffee, Alcohol drinking, awakening
in
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation
volume
69
issue
2
pages
242 - 250
publisher
Informa Healthcare
external identifiers
  • scopus:65649084174
  • wos:000264649400012
ISSN
1502-7686
DOI
10.1080/00365510802483708
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
d946fd88-aed2-44db-ac98-7fad5ec5c9ca (old id 3971955)
date added to LUP
2009-06-15 13:01:50
date last changed
2017-10-01 04:07:48
@article{d946fd88-aed2-44db-ac98-7fad5ec5c9ca,
  abstract     = {Objective . Salivary cortisol is widely used in occupational health research. However, many ordinary daily activities can influence the concentrations of cortisol and the interpretation of field studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lifestyle factors on salivary cortisol in everyday settings. Material and methods . Healthy employees participated in one or more sub-studies on the effect of eating a vegetable salad versus protein-rich mid-day meal (n=40), drinking coffee and smoking (n=12), drinking alcohol (n=32), awakening at different times (n=29) and exercising (n=21). Cortisol in saliva was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results . When eating a mid-day meal, salivary cortisol was increased by 10 % (CI -1 % to 24 %) 1 h after eating compared to before eating in the case of both types of meal. Salivary cortisol increased by 80 % (CI 9 % to 199 %) after exercising compared to before exercise. The relative awakening response was approximately 100 % when using an alarm clock on both work-days and days off. However, the awakening response was 39 % (CI 10 % to 75 %) on a day off with spontaneous awakening. No effects of alcohol, coffee or smoking were observed. Discussion . In field studies, the biological variation in salivary cortisol may be reduced by restricting physical exercise and in collecting pre-meal samples. However, the protein content of food and moderate consumption of alcohol had no effect on concentrations of cortisol. Differences in relative awakening responses on work-days and days off are related to time and mode of awakening.},
  author       = {Garde, A. H. and Persson, Roger and Hansen, A. M. and Österberg, Kai and Orbaek, P. and Eek, Frida and Karlson, Björn},
  issn         = {1502-7686},
  keyword      = {smoking,saliva,food,field study,exercise,coffee,Alcohol drinking,awakening},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {242--250},
  publisher    = {Informa Healthcare},
  series       = {Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation},
  title        = {Effects of lifestyle factors on concentrations of salivary cortisol in healthy individuals},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365510802483708},
  volume       = {69},
  year         = {2009},
}