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Genetic Variation and Migration of Waders

Wennerberg, Liv LU (2001)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Fåglars spektakulära flyttningresor fram och tillbaka över jordklotet har länge fascinerat forskarna, men många frågor kring fåglarnas flyttningsbeteende är ännu obesvarade. Vadare är en av de fågelgrupper som flyttar allra längst, ofta från nordliga häckningsområden uppe på den arktiska tundran till övervintringsområden på södra halvklotet. I avhandlingen används moderna molekylärgenetiska metoder för att studera vadare och deras flyttning. Främst studeras kärrsnäppan (Calidris alpina) som är en av världens vanligaste vadararter och finns så gott som över hela jordklotet. Skillnader mellan populationer, kön och åldersgrupper beskrivs avseende t.ex. flyttningdistans och tidpunkten för flyttning,... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Fåglars spektakulära flyttningresor fram och tillbaka över jordklotet har länge fascinerat forskarna, men många frågor kring fåglarnas flyttningsbeteende är ännu obesvarade. Vadare är en av de fågelgrupper som flyttar allra längst, ofta från nordliga häckningsområden uppe på den arktiska tundran till övervintringsområden på södra halvklotet. I avhandlingen används moderna molekylärgenetiska metoder för att studera vadare och deras flyttning. Främst studeras kärrsnäppan (Calidris alpina) som är en av världens vanligaste vadararter och finns så gott som över hela jordklotet. Skillnader mellan populationer, kön och åldersgrupper beskrivs avseende t.ex. flyttningdistans och tidpunkten för flyttning, häckning och ruggning.



Dessutom beskrivs den genetiska variation som finns inom naturliga populationer av kärrsnäppa i olika delar av världen. Den genetiska informationen kan användas för att känna igen individer från olika populationer, vilket underlättar studier av deras årliga flyttningsbeteende. De kan också används för att studera spridning och genflöde mellan populationer på längre sikt, vilket t.ex. kan vara viktigt vid prioritering av naturvårdsinsatser för hotade populationer.



Även två andra vadararter studeras: spovsnäppan (C. ferruginea) som häckar på den sibiriska tundran och övervintrar i Australien och Afrika, och vitgumpsnäppan (C. fuscicollis), som häckar på den kanadensiska tundran övervintrar i södra delarna av Sydamerika. Den genetiska variationen beskrivs främst med hjälp av två molekylärgenetiska metoder: DNA-sekvensering och mikrosatellitanalys. Även andra metoder än de genetiska tillämpas i avhandlingen, t.ex. analyseras fjädrarnas innehåll av kol-isotoper. Resultaten visar att isotopesammansättningen skiljer mellan olika populationer av vitgumpsnäppor i Kanada.



De tre vadararterna har olika flyttningsstrategier och geografiska utbredning, vilket på flera sätt tydligt påverkat den genetiska variationen inom och mellan arterna. (Less)
Abstract
The migratory behaviour of birds has received much scientific interest, though many questions still remain unsolved. One of the reasons for this is the difficulty of following the birds as they move between breeding and wintering localities. Populations may mix on migration and the origin of individual birds is difficult to assess. One way to address this problem may be to develop genetic population markers, using molecular genetic analysis to estimate the breeding origin of the birds, and thereby making it possible to recognise them throughout the annual cycle.



In this thesis, the genetic variation in three wader species is studied: Dunlin (Calidris alpina), Curlew Sandpiper (C. ferruginea) and White-rumped Sandpiper... (More)
The migratory behaviour of birds has received much scientific interest, though many questions still remain unsolved. One of the reasons for this is the difficulty of following the birds as they move between breeding and wintering localities. Populations may mix on migration and the origin of individual birds is difficult to assess. One way to address this problem may be to develop genetic population markers, using molecular genetic analysis to estimate the breeding origin of the birds, and thereby making it possible to recognise them throughout the annual cycle.



In this thesis, the genetic variation in three wader species is studied: Dunlin (Calidris alpina), Curlew Sandpiper (C. ferruginea) and White-rumped Sandpiper (C. fuscicollis). Waders are among the most long-distance migrants and often travel many thousands of kilometres every spring and autumn. The genetic variation within these species is described mainly using two molecular genetic methods: DNA-sequencing and microsatellite analysis.



In the Dunlin, the mitochondrial control region shows clear geographic structuring on a global geographic scale, however some overlap also exists between populations. Geographic structuring is also found by microsatellites, which show more variation and also indicate genetic differences between populations on a local scale. Genetic markers are applied in two studies of the migration strategies of Dunlin, showing a parallel migration system, estimating the migration distances, and showing variation within the species in the timing of breeding, migration and moult.



The Curlew Sandpiper, on the other hand, shows almost no geographic structuring and seems to have extremely low genetic differentiation between the two extreme flyways to West Africa and Australia respectively. Also the White-rumped Sandpiper shows genetic similarities between distant breeding areas. The low levels of genetic variation and population structuring in high arctic waders may be related to the influence of the glacial cycles on the breeding habitat, as well as to their migration strategies.



Another method for identifying the origin of migrating birds may be to use of isotope analysis. White-rumped Sandpipers from different breeding grounds had different carbon isotopes ratios in the feathers, thus isotope analysis make it possible to distinguish them also on migration. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Dr Haig, Susan, US Geological Survey, Corvallis, USA
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
mtDNA sequencing, microsatellite analysis, Dunlin, Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea, White-rumped Sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis, carbon isotope ratios, Zoologi, Zoology, Ecology, bird migration, population genetics, Ekologi, Animal ecology, Djurekologi
pages
134 pages
publisher
Ecology Building, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
defense location
Ecology Building, Lund University
defense date
2001-11-09 10:15
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN: SE-LUNBDS/NBZE-01/1088
ISBN
91-7105-161-9
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
18c91aad-d6a2-423f-9b1c-9c2e6801e879 (old id 42005)
date added to LUP
2007-08-01 10:44:52
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:13
@phdthesis{18c91aad-d6a2-423f-9b1c-9c2e6801e879,
  abstract     = {The migratory behaviour of birds has received much scientific interest, though many questions still remain unsolved. One of the reasons for this is the difficulty of following the birds as they move between breeding and wintering localities. Populations may mix on migration and the origin of individual birds is difficult to assess. One way to address this problem may be to develop genetic population markers, using molecular genetic analysis to estimate the breeding origin of the birds, and thereby making it possible to recognise them throughout the annual cycle.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In this thesis, the genetic variation in three wader species is studied: Dunlin (Calidris alpina), Curlew Sandpiper (C. ferruginea) and White-rumped Sandpiper (C. fuscicollis). Waders are among the most long-distance migrants and often travel many thousands of kilometres every spring and autumn. The genetic variation within these species is described mainly using two molecular genetic methods: DNA-sequencing and microsatellite analysis.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In the Dunlin, the mitochondrial control region shows clear geographic structuring on a global geographic scale, however some overlap also exists between populations. Geographic structuring is also found by microsatellites, which show more variation and also indicate genetic differences between populations on a local scale. Genetic markers are applied in two studies of the migration strategies of Dunlin, showing a parallel migration system, estimating the migration distances, and showing variation within the species in the timing of breeding, migration and moult.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The Curlew Sandpiper, on the other hand, shows almost no geographic structuring and seems to have extremely low genetic differentiation between the two extreme flyways to West Africa and Australia respectively. Also the White-rumped Sandpiper shows genetic similarities between distant breeding areas. The low levels of genetic variation and population structuring in high arctic waders may be related to the influence of the glacial cycles on the breeding habitat, as well as to their migration strategies.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Another method for identifying the origin of migrating birds may be to use of isotope analysis. White-rumped Sandpipers from different breeding grounds had different carbon isotopes ratios in the feathers, thus isotope analysis make it possible to distinguish them also on migration.},
  author       = {Wennerberg, Liv},
  isbn         = {91-7105-161-9},
  keyword      = {mtDNA sequencing,microsatellite analysis,Dunlin,Calidris alpina,Curlew Sandpiper,Calidris ferruginea,White-rumped Sandpiper,Calidris fuscicollis,carbon isotope ratios,Zoologi,Zoology,Ecology,bird migration,population genetics,Ekologi,Animal ecology,Djurekologi},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {134},
  publisher    = {Ecology Building, 223 62 Lund, Sweden},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Genetic Variation and Migration of Waders},
  year         = {2001},
}