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Education Reforms in the Muslim Middle East: A Move Towards Democracy?

Arjmand, Reza LU (2013)
Abstract
Education reform in the Muslim Middle East and North Africa is perceived as a result of a slow process of democratization at the crossroad of globalization, rapid economic development, socio-political changes and religious ideologies. The diverse pattern of the reforms is the reflection of the complexity across the region; affected by domestic factors and the nature and extent of the linkage to the global forces. Despite differences, reforms share four common interlinked features across the region: 1. Socio-economic development and civil society (with foci on new definition of CS based on Human Rights and democracy against the Islamic waqf-based CS); 2. New modes of governance and redefinition of the role of state; 3. Cultural... (More)
Education reform in the Muslim Middle East and North Africa is perceived as a result of a slow process of democratization at the crossroad of globalization, rapid economic development, socio-political changes and religious ideologies. The diverse pattern of the reforms is the reflection of the complexity across the region; affected by domestic factors and the nature and extent of the linkage to the global forces. Despite differences, reforms share four common interlinked features across the region: 1. Socio-economic development and civil society (with foci on new definition of CS based on Human Rights and democracy against the Islamic waqf-based CS); 2. New modes of governance and redefinition of the role of state; 3. Cultural (traditional/religious) factors and political climate; and 4. International factors. Albeit variations, in all countries: ‘religion’ and `tradition' have been re-defined and re-appropriated within education; the need for reform has come through `domestic actors' endorsed by ‘external actors’ and/or mutual interactions; a slow process of democratization has compelled the reforms; emergence of a middle-class has contributed to the changes in the educational landscape, and lastly there is synchronization between domestic and international actors to inhibit or enhance the chance for reforms along with larger international practices such as EFA, MDG and LLL.



This paper is based on the preliminary findings of a larger comparative study on the recent educational reforms in Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and UAE using interviews with various stakeholders and policy analysis as the primary source of data at both national and cross-national levels. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to conference
publication status
submitted
subject
keywords
Islam, Middle East, Democracy, Education
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
94e786e4-e21c-4fa4-9dc5-7f065ed75fee (old id 4222788)
date added to LUP
2014-01-07 11:38:53
date last changed
2016-04-16 11:12:19
@misc{94e786e4-e21c-4fa4-9dc5-7f065ed75fee,
  abstract     = {Education reform in the Muslim Middle East and North Africa is perceived as a result of a slow process of democratization at the crossroad of globalization, rapid economic development, socio-political changes and religious ideologies. The diverse pattern of the reforms is the reflection of the complexity across the region; affected by domestic factors and the nature and extent of the linkage to the global forces. Despite differences, reforms share four common interlinked features across the region: 1. Socio-economic development and civil society (with foci on new definition of CS based on Human Rights and democracy against the Islamic waqf-based CS); 2. New modes of governance and redefinition of the role of state; 3. Cultural (traditional/religious) factors and political climate; and 4. International factors. Albeit variations, in all countries: ‘religion’ and `tradition' have been re-defined and re-appropriated within education; the need for reform has come through `domestic actors' endorsed by ‘external actors’ and/or mutual interactions; a slow process of democratization has compelled the reforms; emergence of a middle-class has contributed to the changes in the educational landscape, and lastly there is synchronization between domestic and international actors to inhibit or enhance the chance for reforms along with larger international practices such as EFA, MDG and LLL. <br/><br>
<br/><br>
This paper is based on the preliminary findings of a larger comparative study on the recent educational reforms in Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and UAE using interviews with various stakeholders and policy analysis as the primary source of data at both national and cross-national levels.},
  author       = {Arjmand, Reza},
  keyword      = {Islam,Middle East,Democracy,Education},
  language     = {eng},
  title        = {Education Reforms in the Muslim Middle East: A Move Towards Democracy?},
  year         = {2013},
}