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Hip Fracture Risk and Cadmium in Erythrocytes: A Nested Case-Control Study with Prospectively Collected Samples

Sommar, Johan Nilsson; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Lundh, Thomas LU ; Svensson, Olle; Hallmans, Goran and Bergdahl, Ingvar A. (2014) In Calcified Tissue International 94(2). p.183-190
Abstract
Several studies have investigated the relation between bone mass density and cadmium exposure, but only few studies have been performed on fractures and biomarkers of cadmium. This study analyzed the association between hip fracture risk and cadmium in erythrocytes (Ery-Cd). Prospective samples from the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study's biobank were used for 109 individuals who later in life had sustained a low-trauma hip fracture, matched with two controls of the same age and gender. The mean concentration of Ery-Cd (+/- SD) in case samples was 1.3 +/- A 1.4 versus 0.9 +/- A 1.0 mu g/L in controls. The odds ratio (OR) was 1.63 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.42] for suffering a hip fracture for each microgram per liter... (More)
Several studies have investigated the relation between bone mass density and cadmium exposure, but only few studies have been performed on fractures and biomarkers of cadmium. This study analyzed the association between hip fracture risk and cadmium in erythrocytes (Ery-Cd). Prospective samples from the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study's biobank were used for 109 individuals who later in life had sustained a low-trauma hip fracture, matched with two controls of the same age and gender. The mean concentration of Ery-Cd (+/- SD) in case samples was 1.3 +/- A 1.4 versus 0.9 +/- A 1.0 mu g/L in controls. The odds ratio (OR) was 1.63 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.42] for suffering a hip fracture for each microgram per liter increase in Ery-Cd. However, when taking smoking into consideration (never, former, or current), neither Ery-Cd nor smoking showed a statistically significant increase in fracture risk. Using multiple conditional logistic regression with BMI, height, and smoking, the estimated OR for a 1-mu g/L increase in Ery-Cd was 1.52 (95 % CI 0.77-2.97). Subgroup analysis showed an increased fracture risk among women (OR = 1.94, 95 % CI 1.18-3.20, for a 1 mu g/L increase), which also remained in the multiple analysis (OR = 3.33, 95 % CI 1.29-8.56). This study shows that fracture risk is associated with Ery-Cd. It is, however, not possible to draw firm conclusions on whether cadmium is the causal factor or whether other smoking-related factors cause this association. Subgroup analysis shows that cadmium is a risk factor for hip fracture among women. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Cadmium, Environmental exposure, Heavy metal, Hip fracture, Prospective
in
Calcified Tissue International
volume
94
issue
2
pages
183 - 190
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • wos:000330827700007
  • scopus:84893234806
ISSN
1432-0827
DOI
10.1007/s00223-013-9796-5
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
6a7b9f16-33b4-4274-866a-daaadddde8b4 (old id 4376365)
date added to LUP
2014-04-07 09:21:05
date last changed
2017-08-06 03:53:00
@article{6a7b9f16-33b4-4274-866a-daaadddde8b4,
  abstract     = {Several studies have investigated the relation between bone mass density and cadmium exposure, but only few studies have been performed on fractures and biomarkers of cadmium. This study analyzed the association between hip fracture risk and cadmium in erythrocytes (Ery-Cd). Prospective samples from the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study's biobank were used for 109 individuals who later in life had sustained a low-trauma hip fracture, matched with two controls of the same age and gender. The mean concentration of Ery-Cd (+/- SD) in case samples was 1.3 +/- A 1.4 versus 0.9 +/- A 1.0 mu g/L in controls. The odds ratio (OR) was 1.63 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.42] for suffering a hip fracture for each microgram per liter increase in Ery-Cd. However, when taking smoking into consideration (never, former, or current), neither Ery-Cd nor smoking showed a statistically significant increase in fracture risk. Using multiple conditional logistic regression with BMI, height, and smoking, the estimated OR for a 1-mu g/L increase in Ery-Cd was 1.52 (95 % CI 0.77-2.97). Subgroup analysis showed an increased fracture risk among women (OR = 1.94, 95 % CI 1.18-3.20, for a 1 mu g/L increase), which also remained in the multiple analysis (OR = 3.33, 95 % CI 1.29-8.56). This study shows that fracture risk is associated with Ery-Cd. It is, however, not possible to draw firm conclusions on whether cadmium is the causal factor or whether other smoking-related factors cause this association. Subgroup analysis shows that cadmium is a risk factor for hip fracture among women.},
  author       = {Sommar, Johan Nilsson and Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika and Lundh, Thomas and Svensson, Olle and Hallmans, Goran and Bergdahl, Ingvar A.},
  issn         = {1432-0827},
  keyword      = {Cadmium,Environmental exposure,Heavy metal,Hip fracture,Prospective},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {183--190},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Calcified Tissue International},
  title        = {Hip Fracture Risk and Cadmium in Erythrocytes: A Nested Case-Control Study with Prospectively Collected Samples},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-013-9796-5},
  volume       = {94},
  year         = {2014},
}