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Relationship between mercury in kidney, blood, and urine in environmentally exposed individuals, and implications for biomonitoring

Akerstrom, Magnus; Barregard, Lars; Lundh, Thomas LU and Sallsten, Gerd (2017) In Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 320. p.17-25
Abstract

Background Individuals without occupational exposure are exposed to mercury (Hg) from diet and dental amalgam. The kidney is a critical organ, but there is limited information regarding the relationship between Hg in kidney (K-Hg), urine (U-Hg), blood (B-Hg), and plasma (P-Hg). Objectives The aim was to determine the relationship between K-Hg, U-Hg, B-Hg, and P-Hg among environmentally exposed individuals, estimate the biological half-time of K-Hg, and provide information useful for biomonitoring of Hg. Methods Kidney cortex biopsies and urine and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Total Hg concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Hg, U-Hg, P-Hg, and B-Hg were investigated in regression... (More)

Background Individuals without occupational exposure are exposed to mercury (Hg) from diet and dental amalgam. The kidney is a critical organ, but there is limited information regarding the relationship between Hg in kidney (K-Hg), urine (U-Hg), blood (B-Hg), and plasma (P-Hg). Objectives The aim was to determine the relationship between K-Hg, U-Hg, B-Hg, and P-Hg among environmentally exposed individuals, estimate the biological half-time of K-Hg, and provide information useful for biomonitoring of Hg. Methods Kidney cortex biopsies and urine and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Total Hg concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Hg, U-Hg, P-Hg, and B-Hg were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Hg was estimated from the elimination constant. Results There were strong associations between K-Hg and all measures of U-Hg and P-Hg (rp = 0.65–0.84, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Hg was weaker (rp = 0.29, p = 0.002). Mean ratios between K-Hg (in μg/g) and U-Hg/24h (in μg) and B-Hg (in μg/L) were 0.22 and 0.19 respectively. Estimates of the biological half-time varied between 30 and 92 days, with significantly slower elimination in women. Adjusting overnight urine samples for dilution using urinary creatinine resulted in less bias in relation to K-Hg or U-Hg/24h, compared with other adjustment techniques. Conclusions The relationship between K-Hg and U-Hg is approximately linear. K-Hg can be estimated using U-Hg and gender. Women have longer half-time of Hg in kidney compared to men. Adjusting overnight urine samples for creatinine concentration resulted in less bias.

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organization
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type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Biomonitoring, Blood, Kidney, Mercury, Plasma, Urine
in
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
volume
320
pages
9 pages
publisher
Academic Press
external identifiers
  • scopus:85013157912
  • wos:000396798200003
ISSN
0041-008X
DOI
10.1016/j.taap.2017.02.007
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
4461d4db-d4dc-4adb-9617-a7ca7bdde48f
date added to LUP
2017-03-01 08:40:18
date last changed
2018-01-07 11:53:24
@article{4461d4db-d4dc-4adb-9617-a7ca7bdde48f,
  abstract     = {<p>Background Individuals without occupational exposure are exposed to mercury (Hg) from diet and dental amalgam. The kidney is a critical organ, but there is limited information regarding the relationship between Hg in kidney (K-Hg), urine (U-Hg), blood (B-Hg), and plasma (P-Hg). Objectives The aim was to determine the relationship between K-Hg, U-Hg, B-Hg, and P-Hg among environmentally exposed individuals, estimate the biological half-time of K-Hg, and provide information useful for biomonitoring of Hg. Methods Kidney cortex biopsies and urine and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Total Hg concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Hg, U-Hg, P-Hg, and B-Hg were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Hg was estimated from the elimination constant. Results There were strong associations between K-Hg and all measures of U-Hg and P-Hg (r<sub>p</sub> = 0.65–0.84, p &lt; 0.001), while the association with B-Hg was weaker (r<sub>p</sub> = 0.29, p = 0.002). Mean ratios between K-Hg (in μg/g) and U-Hg/24h (in μg) and B-Hg (in μg/L) were 0.22 and 0.19 respectively. Estimates of the biological half-time varied between 30 and 92 days, with significantly slower elimination in women. Adjusting overnight urine samples for dilution using urinary creatinine resulted in less bias in relation to K-Hg or U-Hg/24h, compared with other adjustment techniques. Conclusions The relationship between K-Hg and U-Hg is approximately linear. K-Hg can be estimated using U-Hg and gender. Women have longer half-time of Hg in kidney compared to men. Adjusting overnight urine samples for creatinine concentration resulted in less bias.</p>},
  author       = {Akerstrom, Magnus and Barregard, Lars and Lundh, Thomas and Sallsten, Gerd},
  issn         = {0041-008X},
  keyword      = {Biomonitoring,Blood,Kidney,Mercury,Plasma,Urine},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {04},
  pages        = {17--25},
  publisher    = {Academic Press},
  series       = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
  title        = {Relationship between mercury in kidney, blood, and urine in environmentally exposed individuals, and implications for biomonitoring},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2017.02.007},
  volume       = {320},
  year         = {2017},
}