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Streptococcus pneumoniae Otitis Media Pathogenesis and How It Informs Our Understanding of Vaccine Strategies.

Bergenfelz, Caroline LU and Hakansson, Anders P LU (2017) In Current Otorhinolaryngology Report 5(2). p.115-124
Abstract
Purpose of Review This study aimed to review the literature regarding the mechanisms of transition from asymptomatic colonization to induction of otitis media and how the insight into the pathogenesis of otitis media has the potential to help design future otitis media-directed vaccines.
Recent Findings Respiratory viruses have long been shown to predispose individuals to bacterial respiratory infections, such as otitis media. Recent information suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae, which colonize the nasopharynx asymptomatical- ly, can sense potentially “threatening” changes in the nasopha- ryngeal environment caused by virus infection by upregulating specific sets of genes involved in biofilm release, dissemination from the... (More)
Purpose of Review This study aimed to review the literature regarding the mechanisms of transition from asymptomatic colonization to induction of otitis media and how the insight into the pathogenesis of otitis media has the potential to help design future otitis media-directed vaccines.
Recent Findings Respiratory viruses have long been shown to predispose individuals to bacterial respiratory infections, such as otitis media. Recent information suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae, which colonize the nasopharynx asymptomatical- ly, can sense potentially “threatening” changes in the nasopha- ryngeal environment caused by virus infection by upregulating specific sets of genes involved in biofilm release, dissemination from the nasopharynx to other sites, and protection against the host immune system. Furthermore, an understanding of the transcriptional and proteomic changes occurring in bacteria dur- ing transition to infection has led to identification of novel vaccine targets that are disease-specific and will not affect asymptomatic colonization. This approach will avoid major changes in the delicate balance of microorganisms in the respi- ratory tract microbiome due to elimination of S. pneumoniae. Summary Our recent findings are reviewed in the context of the current literature on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of otitis media. We also discuss how other otopathogens, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, as well as the normal respiratory microbiome, can modulate the ability of pneumococci to cause infection. Furthermore, the unsatis- factory protection offered by the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is highlighted and we review potential future strate- gies emerging to confer a more specific protection against otitis media.
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Otitis media, streptococcus pneumoniae, Biofilm, Microbiome, Vaccine
in
Current Otorhinolaryngology Report
volume
5
issue
2
pages
115 - 124
publisher
Springer
ISSN
2167-583X
DOI
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
45c72669-0d75-4455-8e85-1edc47dc41f3
date added to LUP
2018-02-08 15:30:56
date last changed
2018-05-29 09:28:00
@article{45c72669-0d75-4455-8e85-1edc47dc41f3,
  abstract     = {Purpose of Review This study aimed to review the literature regarding the mechanisms of transition from asymptomatic colonization to induction of otitis media and how the insight into the pathogenesis of otitis media has the potential to help design future otitis media-directed vaccines. <br/>Recent Findings Respiratory viruses have long been shown to predispose individuals to bacterial respiratory infections, such as otitis media. Recent information suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae, which colonize the nasopharynx asymptomatical- ly, can sense potentially “threatening” changes in the nasopha- ryngeal environment caused by virus infection by upregulating specific sets of genes involved in biofilm release, dissemination from the nasopharynx to other sites, and protection against the host immune system. Furthermore, an understanding of the transcriptional and proteomic changes occurring in bacteria dur- ing transition to infection has led to identification of novel vaccine targets that are disease-specific and will not affect asymptomatic colonization. This approach will avoid major changes in the delicate balance of microorganisms in the respi- ratory tract microbiome due to elimination of S. pneumoniae. Summary Our recent findings are reviewed in the context of the current literature on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of otitis media. We also discuss how other otopathogens, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, as well as the normal respiratory microbiome, can modulate the ability of pneumococci to cause infection. Furthermore, the unsatis- factory protection offered by the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is highlighted and we review potential future strate- gies emerging to confer a more specific protection against otitis media. <br/>},
  author       = {Bergenfelz, Caroline and Hakansson, Anders P},
  issn         = {2167-583X},
  keyword      = {Otitis media,streptococcus pneumoniae,Biofilm,Microbiome,Vaccine},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {05},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {115--124},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Current Otorhinolaryngology Report},
  title        = {Streptococcus pneumoniae Otitis Media Pathogenesis and How It Informs Our Understanding of Vaccine Strategies.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/},
  volume       = {5},
  year         = {2017},
}