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Economic Analyses of Drinking Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries

Hindman, Therése LU (2002) In Lund Economic Studies no. 101.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Denna avhandling fokuserar på två av de många faktorer som är av fundamental betydelse både för människors välfärd och för ett lands utveckling dvs. val av dricksvattenkälla och toalettfacilitet. I avhandlingen analyseras olika aspekter av hushållsefterfrågan på dessa två faktorer med hjälp av data från Filippinerna och Bangladesh. Avhandlingen består av fem kapitel, ett introduktionskapitel och fyra självständiga, i huvudsak empiriska, studier. I kapitel två, Women’s Health Choices and the Effects on Child Health, analyseras hur kvinnors konsumtionsval kan påverka barnets hälsa både före och efter det att barnet är fött. Studien skiljer sig från tidigare studier på området genom att tillåta... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Denna avhandling fokuserar på två av de många faktorer som är av fundamental betydelse både för människors välfärd och för ett lands utveckling dvs. val av dricksvattenkälla och toalettfacilitet. I avhandlingen analyseras olika aspekter av hushållsefterfrågan på dessa två faktorer med hjälp av data från Filippinerna och Bangladesh. Avhandlingen består av fem kapitel, ett introduktionskapitel och fyra självständiga, i huvudsak empiriska, studier. I kapitel två, Women’s Health Choices and the Effects on Child Health, analyseras hur kvinnors konsumtionsval kan påverka barnets hälsa både före och efter det att barnet är fött. Studien skiljer sig från tidigare studier på området genom att tillåta olika barnhälsoproduktionsfunktioner före och efter förlossningen. Antagandet om olika hälsoproduktionsfunktioner är väl i linje med den forskning som sker inom epidemiologi och näringslära. Resultaten indikerar att familjespecifika faktorer kan vara viktiga bestämningsfaktorer till barnhälsa. Vidare tyder resultaten på att passiv rökning är skadligt för barnets hälsa men det går inte att finna någon effekt på barnhälsa av moderns rökvanor under graviditeten. Valet av dricksvattenkälla och toalettfacilitet påverkar barnets hälsa efter födseln och resultaten tyder på att det kan vara så att hushåll som bor/lever i en ”dålig” miljö kompenserar barnet för detta. Det huvudsakliga syftet i kapitel tre, Household Choice of Drinking Water Source in the Philippines, är att empiriskt analysera hushållens val av dricksvattenkälla/efterfrågan på vatten från en viss vattenkälla. Resultaten visar att tidskostnaden är den ensamt viktigaste bestämningsfaktorn för hushållens val. Således indikerar resultaten att avståndet till en viss vattenkälla kan vara mer betydelsefullt för valet/efterfrågan än typen av vattenkälla. I kapitel fyra, A Demand and Welfare Analysis of Sanitation, analyseras välfärdsimplikationerna av vissa prisförändringar på ett antal olika toalettfaciliteter. Vidare så jämförs resultaten från två olika ekonometriska modeller dvs. ”conditional logit” modellen och ”random parameter/mixed logit” modellen. Resultaten visar att priset verkar fungera som en kvalitetssignal och att hushållen i genomsnitt får det bättre efter prishöjningar. Vidare så visar resultaten att valet av ekonometrisk modell inte har någon betydelse för skattningar av välfärdseffekter i detta fall. I kapitel fem, Demand for Water and Sanitation in Bangladesh, analyseras potentiella bestämningsfaktorer till efterfrågan på vissa typer av dricksvatten och toalettfaciliteter. Datan kommer från en undersökning av 120 hushåll från sex olika distrikt. Resultaten visar att utbildningsnivån är en viktig bestämningsfaktor för hushållens val av toalettfacilitet och att hushållsstorleken påverkar hushållens val av dricksvattenkälla i riktning mot bättre (ur hälsosynpunkt) alternativ. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis focuses on different aspects of household demand, and the determinants of demand, for water and sanitation related inputs fundamental to the households' well-being, i.e. drinking water and toilet facilities. The thesis consists of five chapters, one introductory chapter and four self-contained, essentially empirical, studies.



In chapter two, Women's Health Choices and the Effects on Child Health, different aspects of child health and women's health choices for a sample of rural households in Cebu, Philippines are analysed. The approach differs from other studies by introducing the possibility of different health production functions before and after birth - an approach that is well in line with recent... (More)
This thesis focuses on different aspects of household demand, and the determinants of demand, for water and sanitation related inputs fundamental to the households' well-being, i.e. drinking water and toilet facilities. The thesis consists of five chapters, one introductory chapter and four self-contained, essentially empirical, studies.



In chapter two, Women's Health Choices and the Effects on Child Health, different aspects of child health and women's health choices for a sample of rural households in Cebu, Philippines are analysed. The approach differs from other studies by introducing the possibility of different health production functions before and after birth - an approach that is well in line with recent research in nutrition and epidemiology. The results indicate that prenatal care and the mother's income/nutritional status have significant effects on birthweight. Smoking by the mother has a significant negative effect on the health of the child after birth, thus implying that passive smoking by the child has important health effects. In addition, the results indicate that the choice of drinking water source and toilet facility has an effect on postnatal child health. The main purpose of chapter three, Household Choice of Drinking Water Source in the Philippines, is to analyse empirically household choice of drinking water source by using a discrete choice approach, i.e. a nested logit model, consistent with utility maximisation. The results show that time cost is an important determinant of household choice of drinking water source, which indicates that households might be more concerned with the distance, as measured by the time cost, to a drinking water source than the type of water source. Thus, due consideration must be given to household time allocation patterns when implementing water supply programmes. In chapter four, A Demand and Welfare Analysis of Sanitation, the welfare implications of, for example, a change in the price of different toilet facilities are analysed. In addition, a comparison of the welfare estimates derived from the conditional logit model and the random parameter/mixed logit model, is undertaken. Overall, the results seem to indicate that households are able to evaluate different toilet facilities based on either their physical characteristics or because households are aware of the positive effects of a better toilet facility, from a health point of view. The signs for the mean compensating variation show that households are better off after price increases and worse off after price cuts.



In chapter five, Demand for Water and Sanitation in Bangladesh, potential determinants of household choice of water supply and sanitation-related services for a sample of households in Bangladesh are analysed. The results indicate that the educational level increases the probability that a household will choose a modern toilet facility. This finding is in line with earlier studies and confirms that a low educational level often implies that the understanding of the health benefits of sanitary toilet facilities is limited or even poor. In the case of drinking water source, the results show that there are no choice-specific characteristics that affect choice in any significant way. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Dr McKay, Andrew, University of Nottingham, UK
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
ekonomisk teori, Nationalekonomi, ekonometri, economic policy, economic systems, economic theory, econometrics, Economics, Discrete Choice, Welfare, Child Health, Water and Sanitation, Household Demand, ekonomiska system, ekonomisk politik, Public health, epidemiology, Folkhälsa, epidemiologi, Environmental health, Miljömedicin
in
Lund Economic Studies
volume
no. 101
pages
132 pages
publisher
Department of Economics, Lund Universtiy
defense location
EC3:210 Holger Crafoords Ekonomicentrum
defense date
2002-04-13 10:15
ISSN
0460-0029
ISBN
91-628-5154-3
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
065ae1cb-b84d-41e3-bdab-a6bf1bbb23c2 (old id 464478)
date added to LUP
2007-09-27 11:30:05
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:58
@phdthesis{065ae1cb-b84d-41e3-bdab-a6bf1bbb23c2,
  abstract     = {This thesis focuses on different aspects of household demand, and the determinants of demand, for water and sanitation related inputs fundamental to the households' well-being, i.e. drinking water and toilet facilities. The thesis consists of five chapters, one introductory chapter and four self-contained, essentially empirical, studies.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In chapter two, Women's Health Choices and the Effects on Child Health, different aspects of child health and women's health choices for a sample of rural households in Cebu, Philippines are analysed. The approach differs from other studies by introducing the possibility of different health production functions before and after birth - an approach that is well in line with recent research in nutrition and epidemiology. The results indicate that prenatal care and the mother's income/nutritional status have significant effects on birthweight. Smoking by the mother has a significant negative effect on the health of the child after birth, thus implying that passive smoking by the child has important health effects. In addition, the results indicate that the choice of drinking water source and toilet facility has an effect on postnatal child health. The main purpose of chapter three, Household Choice of Drinking Water Source in the Philippines, is to analyse empirically household choice of drinking water source by using a discrete choice approach, i.e. a nested logit model, consistent with utility maximisation. The results show that time cost is an important determinant of household choice of drinking water source, which indicates that households might be more concerned with the distance, as measured by the time cost, to a drinking water source than the type of water source. Thus, due consideration must be given to household time allocation patterns when implementing water supply programmes. In chapter four, A Demand and Welfare Analysis of Sanitation, the welfare implications of, for example, a change in the price of different toilet facilities are analysed. In addition, a comparison of the welfare estimates derived from the conditional logit model and the random parameter/mixed logit model, is undertaken. Overall, the results seem to indicate that households are able to evaluate different toilet facilities based on either their physical characteristics or because households are aware of the positive effects of a better toilet facility, from a health point of view. The signs for the mean compensating variation show that households are better off after price increases and worse off after price cuts.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In chapter five, Demand for Water and Sanitation in Bangladesh, potential determinants of household choice of water supply and sanitation-related services for a sample of households in Bangladesh are analysed. The results indicate that the educational level increases the probability that a household will choose a modern toilet facility. This finding is in line with earlier studies and confirms that a low educational level often implies that the understanding of the health benefits of sanitary toilet facilities is limited or even poor. In the case of drinking water source, the results show that there are no choice-specific characteristics that affect choice in any significant way.},
  author       = {Hindman, Therése},
  isbn         = {91-628-5154-3},
  issn         = {0460-0029},
  keyword      = {ekonomisk teori,Nationalekonomi,ekonometri,economic policy,economic systems,economic theory,econometrics,Economics,Discrete Choice,Welfare,Child Health,Water and Sanitation,Household Demand,ekonomiska system,ekonomisk politik,Public health,epidemiology,Folkhälsa,epidemiologi,Environmental health,Miljömedicin},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {132},
  publisher    = {Department of Economics, Lund Universtiy},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund Economic Studies},
  title        = {Economic Analyses of Drinking Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries},
  volume       = {no. 101},
  year         = {2002},
}