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Phase Behavior of Bicontinuous and Water/Diesel Fuel Microemulsions Using Nonionic Surfactants Combined with Hydrophilic Alcohol Ethoxylates

Kayali, Ibrahim; Karaein, Mohammad; Qamhieh, Khawla; Wadaah, Salam; Ahmad, Wisam and Olsson, Ulf LU (2015) In Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology 36(1). p.10-17
Abstract
Bicontinuous and water-in-diesel microemulsions were formulated using single nonionic alkyl poly glycol ethers combined with hydrophilic alcohol ethoxylates. The phase behavior at temperatures ranging from 0 degrees C to 50 degrees C was investigated. Visual inspection as well as cross-polarizers were used to detect anisotropy. The fish phase diagrams were determined. The presence of the hydrophilic alcohol ethoxylates was necessary to initiate both types of microemulsions. Increasing the hydrophobic chain length of the surfactant led to a wider range of temperature stability at lower surfactant concentration. Meanwhile, increasing the ethylene oxide units in the headgroup by two units led to a phase diagram that is dominated by lyotropic... (More)
Bicontinuous and water-in-diesel microemulsions were formulated using single nonionic alkyl poly glycol ethers combined with hydrophilic alcohol ethoxylates. The phase behavior at temperatures ranging from 0 degrees C to 50 degrees C was investigated. Visual inspection as well as cross-polarizers were used to detect anisotropy. The fish phase diagrams were determined. The presence of the hydrophilic alcohol ethoxylates was necessary to initiate both types of microemulsions. Increasing the hydrophobic chain length of the surfactant led to a wider range of temperature stability at lower surfactant concentration. Meanwhile, increasing the ethylene oxide units in the headgroup by two units led to a phase diagram that is dominated by lyotropic liquid crystal. The formulated water in diesel microemulsions were tested experimentally in a 4-cylinder diesel engine. From this it is observed that the emissions of NOx, soot, and CO2 were reduced substantially compared to neat diesel, while for the CO the reduction occurs just at low load. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Alternative fuel, diesel, emissions, microemulsion, phase behavior
in
Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology
volume
36
issue
1
pages
10 - 17
publisher
Taylor & Francis
external identifiers
  • wos:000342206600002
  • scopus:84907487523
ISSN
0193-2691
DOI
10.1080/01932691.2014.886513
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
21b091cb-c89c-45ea-80c7-d54c3e58b47a (old id 4699574)
date added to LUP
2014-10-23 07:34:11
date last changed
2017-01-15 03:58:46
@article{21b091cb-c89c-45ea-80c7-d54c3e58b47a,
  abstract     = {Bicontinuous and water-in-diesel microemulsions were formulated using single nonionic alkyl poly glycol ethers combined with hydrophilic alcohol ethoxylates. The phase behavior at temperatures ranging from 0 degrees C to 50 degrees C was investigated. Visual inspection as well as cross-polarizers were used to detect anisotropy. The fish phase diagrams were determined. The presence of the hydrophilic alcohol ethoxylates was necessary to initiate both types of microemulsions. Increasing the hydrophobic chain length of the surfactant led to a wider range of temperature stability at lower surfactant concentration. Meanwhile, increasing the ethylene oxide units in the headgroup by two units led to a phase diagram that is dominated by lyotropic liquid crystal. The formulated water in diesel microemulsions were tested experimentally in a 4-cylinder diesel engine. From this it is observed that the emissions of NOx, soot, and CO2 were reduced substantially compared to neat diesel, while for the CO the reduction occurs just at low load.},
  author       = {Kayali, Ibrahim and Karaein, Mohammad and Qamhieh, Khawla and Wadaah, Salam and Ahmad, Wisam and Olsson, Ulf},
  issn         = {0193-2691},
  keyword      = {Alternative fuel,diesel,emissions,microemulsion,phase behavior},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {10--17},
  publisher    = {Taylor & Francis},
  series       = {Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology},
  title        = {Phase Behavior of Bicontinuous and Water/Diesel Fuel Microemulsions Using Nonionic Surfactants Combined with Hydrophilic Alcohol Ethoxylates},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01932691.2014.886513},
  volume       = {36},
  year         = {2015},
}