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αTubulin 67C and Ncd Are Essential for Establishing a Cortical Microtubular Network and Formation of the Bicoid mRNA Gradient in Drosophila.

Fahmy, Khalid LU ; Akber, Mira LU ; Cai, Xiaoli LU ; Koul, Aabid LU ; Hayder, Awais LU and Baumgartner, Stefan LU (2014) In PLoS ONE 9(11).
Abstract
The Bicoid (Bcd) protein gradient in Drosophila serves as a paradigm for gradient formation in textbooks. To explain the generation of the gradient, the ARTS model, which is based on the observation of a bcd mRNA gradient, proposes that the bcd mRNA, localized at the anterior pole at fertilization, migrates along microtubules (MTs) at the cortex to the posterior to form a bcd mRNA gradient which is translated to form a protein gradient. To fulfil the criteria of the ARTS model, an early cortical MT network is thus a prerequisite. We report hitherto undiscovered MT activities in the early embryo important for bcd mRNA transport: (i) an early and omnidirectional MT network exclusively at the anterior cortex of early nuclear cycle embryos... (More)
The Bicoid (Bcd) protein gradient in Drosophila serves as a paradigm for gradient formation in textbooks. To explain the generation of the gradient, the ARTS model, which is based on the observation of a bcd mRNA gradient, proposes that the bcd mRNA, localized at the anterior pole at fertilization, migrates along microtubules (MTs) at the cortex to the posterior to form a bcd mRNA gradient which is translated to form a protein gradient. To fulfil the criteria of the ARTS model, an early cortical MT network is thus a prerequisite. We report hitherto undiscovered MT activities in the early embryo important for bcd mRNA transport: (i) an early and omnidirectional MT network exclusively at the anterior cortex of early nuclear cycle embryos showing activity during metaphase and anaphase only, (ii) long MTs up to 50 µm extending into the yolk at blastoderm stage to enable basal-apical transport. The cortical MT network is not anchored to the actin cytoskeleton. The posterior transport of the mRNA via the cortical MT network critically depends on maternally-expressed αTubulin67C and the minus-end motor Ncd. In either mutant, cortical transport of the bcd mRNA does not take place and the mRNA migrates along another yet undisclosed interior MT network, instead. Our data strongly corroborate the ARTS model and explain the occurrence of the bcd mRNA gradient. (Less)
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published
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in
PLoS ONE
volume
9
issue
11
publisher
Public Library of Science
external identifiers
  • pmid:25390693
  • wos:000349144400050
ISSN
1932-6203
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0112053
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
3bca9269-d74a-497c-806c-0178f2f6686f (old id 4816839)
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25390693?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2014-12-02 16:10:42
date last changed
2016-04-15 22:24:32
@article{3bca9269-d74a-497c-806c-0178f2f6686f,
  abstract     = {The Bicoid (Bcd) protein gradient in Drosophila serves as a paradigm for gradient formation in textbooks. To explain the generation of the gradient, the ARTS model, which is based on the observation of a bcd mRNA gradient, proposes that the bcd mRNA, localized at the anterior pole at fertilization, migrates along microtubules (MTs) at the cortex to the posterior to form a bcd mRNA gradient which is translated to form a protein gradient. To fulfil the criteria of the ARTS model, an early cortical MT network is thus a prerequisite. We report hitherto undiscovered MT activities in the early embryo important for bcd mRNA transport: (i) an early and omnidirectional MT network exclusively at the anterior cortex of early nuclear cycle embryos showing activity during metaphase and anaphase only, (ii) long MTs up to 50 µm extending into the yolk at blastoderm stage to enable basal-apical transport. The cortical MT network is not anchored to the actin cytoskeleton. The posterior transport of the mRNA via the cortical MT network critically depends on maternally-expressed αTubulin67C and the minus-end motor Ncd. In either mutant, cortical transport of the bcd mRNA does not take place and the mRNA migrates along another yet undisclosed interior MT network, instead. Our data strongly corroborate the ARTS model and explain the occurrence of the bcd mRNA gradient.},
  articleno    = {e112053},
  author       = {Fahmy, Khalid and Akber, Mira and Cai, Xiaoli and Koul, Aabid and Hayder, Awais and Baumgartner, Stefan},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  publisher    = {Public Library of Science},
  series       = {PLoS ONE},
  title        = {αTubulin 67C and Ncd Are Essential for Establishing a Cortical Microtubular Network and Formation of the Bicoid mRNA Gradient in Drosophila.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112053},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2014},
}