Advanced

Urinary BPA measurements in children and mothers from six European member states: Overall results and determinants of exposure.

Covaci, Adrian; Hond, Elly Den; Geens, Tinne; Govarts, Eva; Koppen, Gudrun; Frederiksen, Hanne; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Mørck, Thit A; Gutleb, Arno C and Guignard, Cedric, et al. (2015) In Environmental Research 141(Oct 13). p.77-85
Abstract
For the first time in Europe, both European-wide and country-specific levels of urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) were obtained through a harmonized protocol for participant recruitment, sampling and quality controlled biomarker analysis in the frame of the twin projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES. 674 child-mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational level of the parents was provided by mothers. After exclusion of urine samples with creatinine values below 300mg/L or above 3000mg/L, 653... (More)
For the first time in Europe, both European-wide and country-specific levels of urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) were obtained through a harmonized protocol for participant recruitment, sampling and quality controlled biomarker analysis in the frame of the twin projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES. 674 child-mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational level of the parents was provided by mothers. After exclusion of urine samples with creatinine values below 300mg/L or above 3000mg/L, 653 children and 639 mothers remained for which BPA was measured. The geometric mean (with 95% confidence intervals) and 90th percentile were calculated for BPA separately in children and in mothers and were named "European reference values". After adjustment for confounders (age and creatinine), average exposure values in each country were compared with the mean of the "European reference values" by means of a weighted analysis of variance. Overall geometric means of all countries (95% CI) adjusted for urinary creatinine, age and gender were 2.04 (1.87-2.24) µg/L and 1.88 (1.71-2.07) µg/L for children (n=653) and mothers (n=639), respectively. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant environmental, geographical, personal or life style related determinants. Consumption of canned food and social class (represented by the highest educational level of the family) were the most important predictors for the urinary levels of BPA in mothers and children. The individual BPA levels in children were significantly correlated with the levels in their mothers (r=0.265, p<0.001), which may suggest a possible common environmental/dietary factor that influences the biomarker level in each pair. Exposure of the general European population was well below the current health-based guidance values and no participant had BPA values higher than the health-based guidance values. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
@article{a8a0447d-9c74-4396-9284-51680a10cf2f,
  abstract     = {For the first time in Europe, both European-wide and country-specific levels of urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) were obtained through a harmonized protocol for participant recruitment, sampling and quality controlled biomarker analysis in the frame of the twin projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES. 674 child-mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational level of the parents was provided by mothers. After exclusion of urine samples with creatinine values below 300mg/L or above 3000mg/L, 653 children and 639 mothers remained for which BPA was measured. The geometric mean (with 95% confidence intervals) and 90th percentile were calculated for BPA separately in children and in mothers and were named "European reference values". After adjustment for confounders (age and creatinine), average exposure values in each country were compared with the mean of the "European reference values" by means of a weighted analysis of variance. Overall geometric means of all countries (95% CI) adjusted for urinary creatinine, age and gender were 2.04 (1.87-2.24) µg/L and 1.88 (1.71-2.07) µg/L for children (n=653) and mothers (n=639), respectively. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant environmental, geographical, personal or life style related determinants. Consumption of canned food and social class (represented by the highest educational level of the family) were the most important predictors for the urinary levels of BPA in mothers and children. The individual BPA levels in children were significantly correlated with the levels in their mothers (r=0.265, p&lt;0.001), which may suggest a possible common environmental/dietary factor that influences the biomarker level in each pair. Exposure of the general European population was well below the current health-based guidance values and no participant had BPA values higher than the health-based guidance values.},
  author       = {Covaci, Adrian and Hond, Elly Den and Geens, Tinne and Govarts, Eva and Koppen, Gudrun and Frederiksen, Hanne and Knudsen, Lisbeth E and Mørck, Thit A and Gutleb, Arno C and Guignard, Cedric and Cocco, Emanuelle and Horvat, Milena and Heath, Ester and Kosjek, Tina and Mazej, Darja and Tratnik, Janja Snoj and Castaño, Argelia and Esteban, Marta and Cutanda, Francisco and Ramos, Juan José and Berglund, Marika and Larsson, Kristin and Jönsson, Bo A and Biot, Pierre and Casteleyn, Ludwine and Joas, Reinhard and Joas, Anke and Bloemen, Louis and Sepai, Ovnair and Exley, Karen and Schoeters, Greet and Angerer, Jürgen and Kolossa-Gehring, Marike and Fiddicke, Ulrike and Aerts, Dominique and Koch, Holger M},
  issn         = {1096-0953},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {Oct 13},
  pages        = {77--85},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Environmental Research},
  title        = {Urinary BPA measurements in children and mothers from six European member states: Overall results and determinants of exposure.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2014.08.008},
  volume       = {141},
  year         = {2015},
}