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Management of concussion in soccer

Hubertus, Vanessa; Marklund, Niklas LU and Vajkoczy, Peter (2019) In Acta Neurochirurgica
Abstract

BACKGROUND: When participating in contact sports, (mild) head trauma is a common incident-observed in both professional and amateur sports. When head trauma results in transient neurological impairment, a sports-related concussion has occurred. Acute concussion, repetitive concussions, as well as cumulative "sub-concussive" head impacts may increase the risk of developing cognitive and behavioral deficits for athletes, as well as accelerated cerebral degeneration. While this concept has been well established for classic contact sports like American Football, Rugby, or Boxing, there is still an awareness gap for the role of sports-related concussion in the context of the world's most popular sport-Soccer.

METHODS: Here, we review... (More)

BACKGROUND: When participating in contact sports, (mild) head trauma is a common incident-observed in both professional and amateur sports. When head trauma results in transient neurological impairment, a sports-related concussion has occurred. Acute concussion, repetitive concussions, as well as cumulative "sub-concussive" head impacts may increase the risk of developing cognitive and behavioral deficits for athletes, as well as accelerated cerebral degeneration. While this concept has been well established for classic contact sports like American Football, Rugby, or Boxing, there is still an awareness gap for the role of sports-related concussion in the context of the world's most popular sport-Soccer.

METHODS: Here, we review the relevance of sport-related concussion for Soccer as well as its diagnosis and management. Finally, we provide insight into future directions for research in this field.

RESULTS: Soccer fulfills the criteria of a contact sport and is characterized by a high incidence of concussion. There is ample evidence that these events cause functional and structural cerebral disorders. Furthermore, heading, as a repeat sub-concussive impact, has been linked to structural brain changes and neurocognitive impairment. As a consequence, recommendations for the diagnosis and management of concussion in soccer have been formulated by consensus groups. In order to minimize the risk of repetitive concussion in soccer the rapid and reliable side-line diagnosis of concussion with adoption of a strict remove-from-play protocol is essential, followed by a supervised, graduated return-to-play protocol. Recent studies, however, demonstrate that adherence to these recommendations by players, coaches, clubs, and officials is insufficient, calling for stricter enforcement. In addition, future research to solidify the pathophysiological relevance of concussion for soccer athletes seems to be needed. Advanced neuroimaging and neurochemical biomarker analyses (e.g. S100β, tau and neurofilament light (NfL)) may assist in detecting concussion-related structural brain changes and selecting athletes at risk for irreversible damage.

CONCLUSION: Sports-related concussion represents a genuine neurosurgical field of interest. Given the high socioeconomic relevance, neurosurgeons should get involved in prevention and management of concussion in soccer.

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epub
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Acta Neurochirurgica
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • scopus:85060766645
ISSN
0001-6268
DOI
10.1007/s00701-019-03807-6
language
English
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yes
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4aaaf9aa-fe30-456f-81fc-6b53ddf2f95a
date added to LUP
2019-02-05 11:39:22
date last changed
2019-03-05 04:31:38
@article{4aaaf9aa-fe30-456f-81fc-6b53ddf2f95a,
  abstract     = {<p>BACKGROUND: When participating in contact sports, (mild) head trauma is a common incident-observed in both professional and amateur sports. When head trauma results in transient neurological impairment, a sports-related concussion has occurred. Acute concussion, repetitive concussions, as well as cumulative "sub-concussive" head impacts may increase the risk of developing cognitive and behavioral deficits for athletes, as well as accelerated cerebral degeneration. While this concept has been well established for classic contact sports like American Football, Rugby, or Boxing, there is still an awareness gap for the role of sports-related concussion in the context of the world's most popular sport-Soccer.</p><p>METHODS: Here, we review the relevance of sport-related concussion for Soccer as well as its diagnosis and management. Finally, we provide insight into future directions for research in this field.</p><p>RESULTS: Soccer fulfills the criteria of a contact sport and is characterized by a high incidence of concussion. There is ample evidence that these events cause functional and structural cerebral disorders. Furthermore, heading, as a repeat sub-concussive impact, has been linked to structural brain changes and neurocognitive impairment. As a consequence, recommendations for the diagnosis and management of concussion in soccer have been formulated by consensus groups. In order to minimize the risk of repetitive concussion in soccer the rapid and reliable side-line diagnosis of concussion with adoption of a strict remove-from-play protocol is essential, followed by a supervised, graduated return-to-play protocol. Recent studies, however, demonstrate that adherence to these recommendations by players, coaches, clubs, and officials is insufficient, calling for stricter enforcement. In addition, future research to solidify the pathophysiological relevance of concussion for soccer athletes seems to be needed. Advanced neuroimaging and neurochemical biomarker analyses (e.g. S100β, tau and neurofilament light (NfL)) may assist in detecting concussion-related structural brain changes and selecting athletes at risk for irreversible damage.</p><p>CONCLUSION: Sports-related concussion represents a genuine neurosurgical field of interest. Given the high socioeconomic relevance, neurosurgeons should get involved in prevention and management of concussion in soccer.</p>},
  author       = {Hubertus, Vanessa and Marklund, Niklas and Vajkoczy, Peter},
  issn         = {0001-6268},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {01},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Acta Neurochirurgica},
  title        = {Management of concussion in soccer},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-019-03807-6},
  year         = {2019},
}