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Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa

Zamora, Juan Carlos; Svensson, Måns; Kirschner, Roland; Olariaga, Ibai; Ryman, Svengunnar; Parra, Luis Alberto; Geml, József; Rosling, Anna; Adamčík, Slavomír and Ahti, Teuvo, et al. (2018) In IMA Fungus 9(1). p.167-175
Abstract
Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes... (More)
Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physicals objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the
terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN. (Less)
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keywords
IMC11, nomenclature, speciation, taxonomy, typification, voucherless fungi
in
IMA Fungus
volume
9
issue
1
pages
167 - 175
publisher
International Mycological Association
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  • scopus:85052309383
ISSN
2210-6340
DOI
10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.10
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English
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4e960403-a647-472e-9dfe-67a94e059e93
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2019-04-23 04:33:51
@article{4e960403-a647-472e-9dfe-67a94e059e93,
  abstract     = {Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physicals objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the<br/>terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.},
  author       = {Zamora, Juan Carlos and Svensson, Måns and Kirschner, Roland and Olariaga, Ibai and Ryman, Svengunnar and Parra, Luis Alberto and Geml, József and Rosling, Anna and Adamčík, Slavomír and Ahti, Teuvo and Aime, M. Catherine and Ainsworth, A. Martyn and Albert, László and Albertó, Edgardo and Altés García, Alberto and Ageev, Dmitry and Agerer, Reinhard and Aguirre-hudson, Begoña and Ammirati, Joe and Andersson, Harry and Angelini, Claudio and Antonín, Vladimír and Aoki, Takayuki and Aptroot, André and Argaud, Didier and Arguello Sosa, Blanca Imelda and Aronsen, Arne and Arup, Ulf and Asgari, Bita and Assyov, Boris and Atienza, Violeta and Bandini, Ditte and Baptista-ferreira, João Luís and Baral, Hans-otto and Baroni, Tim and Barreto, Robert Weingart and Beker, Henry and Bell, Ann and Bellanger, Jean-michel and Bellù, Francesco and Bemmann, Martin and Bendiksby, Mika and Bendiksen, Egil and Bendiksen, Katriina and Benedek, Lajos and Bérešová-guttová, Anna and Berger, Franz and Berndt, Reinhard and Bernicchia, Annarosa and Biketova, Alona Yu. and Bizio, Enrico and Bjork, Curtis and Boekhout, Teun and Boertmann, David and Böhning, Tanja and Boittin, Florent and Boluda, Carlos G. and Boomsluiter, Menno W. and Borovička, Jan and Brandrud, Tor Erik and Braun, Uwe and Brodo, Irwin and Bulyonkova, Tatiana and Burdsall Jr., Harold H. and Buyck, Bart and Burgaz, Ana Rosa and Calatayud, Vicent and Callac, Philippe and Campo, Emanuele and Candusso, Massimo and Capoen, Brigitte and Carbó, Joaquim and Carbone, Matteo and Castañeda-ruiz, Rafael F. and Castellano, Michael A. and Chen, Jie and Clerc, Philippe and Consiglio, Giovanni and Corriol, Gilles and Courtecuisse, Régis and Crespo, Ana and Cripps, Cathy and Crous, Pedro W. and Da Silva, Gladstone Alves and Da Silva, Meiriele and Dam, Marjo and Dam, Nico and Dämmrich, Frank and Das, Kanad and Davies, Linda and De Crop, Eske and De Kesel, Andre and De Lange, Ruben and De Madrignac Bonzi, Bárbara and Dela Cruz, Thomas Edison E. and Delgat, Lynn and Demoulin, Vincent and Desjardin, Dennis E. and Diederich, Paul and Dima, Bálint and Dios, Maria Martha and Divakar, Pradeep Kumar and Douanla-meli, Clovis and Douglas, Brian and Drechsler-santos, Elisandro Ricardo and Dyer, Paul S. and Eberhardt, Ursula and Ertz, Damien and Esteve-raventós, Fernando and Etayo Salazar, Javier Angel and Evenson, Vera and Eyssartier, Guillaume and Farkas, Edit and Favre, Alain and Fedosova, Anna G. and Filippa, Mario and Finy, Péter and Flakus, Adam and Fos, Simón and Fournier, Jacques and Fraiture, André and Franchi, Paolo and Franco Molano, Ana Esperanza and Friebes, Gernot and Frisch, Andreas and Fryday, Alan and Furci, Giuliana and Galán Márquez, Ricardo and Garbelotto, Matteo and García-martín, Joaquina María and García Otálora, Mónica A. and García Sánchez, Dania and Gardiennet, Alain and Garnica, Sigisfredo and Garrido Benavent, Isaac and Gates, Genevieve and Gerlach, Alice Da Cruz Lima and Ghobad-nejhad, Masoomeh and B. 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  issn         = {2210-6340},
  keyword      = {IMC11,nomenclature,speciation,taxonomy,typification,voucherless fungi},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {167--175},
  publisher    = {International Mycological Association},
  series       = {IMA Fungus},
  title        = {Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.10},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2018},
}