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Influence of probe flexibility and gelatin embedding on neuronal density and glial responses to brain implants.

Köhler, Per LU ; Wolff, Anette LU ; Ejserholm, Fredrik LU ; Wallman, Lars LU ; Schouenborg, Jens LU and Eriksson Linsmeier, Cecilia LU (2015) In PLoS ONE 10(3).
Abstract
To develop long-term high quality communication between brain and computer, a key issue is how to reduce the adverse foreign body responses. Here, the impact of probe flexibility and gelatine embedding on long-term (6w) tissue responses, was analyzed. Probes of same polymer material, size and shape, flexible mainly in one direction, were implanted in rat cerebral cortex (nimplants = 3 x 8) in two orientations with respect to the major movement direction of the brain relative to the skull: parallel to (flex mode) or transverse to (rigid mode). Flex mode implants were either embedded in gelatin or non-embedded. Neurons, activated microglia and astrocytes were visualized using immunohistochemistry. The astrocytic reactivity, but not... (More)
To develop long-term high quality communication between brain and computer, a key issue is how to reduce the adverse foreign body responses. Here, the impact of probe flexibility and gelatine embedding on long-term (6w) tissue responses, was analyzed. Probes of same polymer material, size and shape, flexible mainly in one direction, were implanted in rat cerebral cortex (nimplants = 3 x 8) in two orientations with respect to the major movement direction of the brain relative to the skull: parallel to (flex mode) or transverse to (rigid mode). Flex mode implants were either embedded in gelatin or non-embedded. Neurons, activated microglia and astrocytes were visualized using immunohistochemistry. The astrocytic reactivity, but not microglial response, was significantly lower to probes implanted in flex mode as compared to rigid mode. The microglial response, but not astrocytic reactivity, was significantly smaller to gelatin embedded probes (flex mode) than non-embedded. Interestingly, the neuronal density was preserved in the inner zone surrounding gelatin embedded probes. This contrasts to the common reports of reduced neuronal density close to implanted probes. In conclusion, sheer stress appears to be an important factor for astrocytic reactivity to implanted probes. Moreover, gelatin embedding can improve the neuronal density and reduce the microglial response close to the probe. (Less)
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published
subject
in
PLoS ONE
volume
10
issue
3
publisher
Public Library of Science
external identifiers
  • pmid:25790172
  • wos:000351425400076
  • scopus:84925438826
ISSN
1932-6203
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0119340
language
English
LU publication?
yes
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a3e91095-88c0-4320-b32c-26467ee29aa1 (old id 5258053)
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25790172?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2015-04-05 14:30:16
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2017-08-13 03:50:18
@article{a3e91095-88c0-4320-b32c-26467ee29aa1,
  abstract     = {To develop long-term high quality communication between brain and computer, a key issue is how to reduce the adverse foreign body responses. Here, the impact of probe flexibility and gelatine embedding on long-term (6w) tissue responses, was analyzed. Probes of same polymer material, size and shape, flexible mainly in one direction, were implanted in rat cerebral cortex (nimplants = 3 x 8) in two orientations with respect to the major movement direction of the brain relative to the skull: parallel to (flex mode) or transverse to (rigid mode). Flex mode implants were either embedded in gelatin or non-embedded. Neurons, activated microglia and astrocytes were visualized using immunohistochemistry. The astrocytic reactivity, but not microglial response, was significantly lower to probes implanted in flex mode as compared to rigid mode. The microglial response, but not astrocytic reactivity, was significantly smaller to gelatin embedded probes (flex mode) than non-embedded. Interestingly, the neuronal density was preserved in the inner zone surrounding gelatin embedded probes. This contrasts to the common reports of reduced neuronal density close to implanted probes. In conclusion, sheer stress appears to be an important factor for astrocytic reactivity to implanted probes. Moreover, gelatin embedding can improve the neuronal density and reduce the microglial response close to the probe.},
  articleno    = {e0119340},
  author       = {Köhler, Per and Wolff, Anette and Ejserholm, Fredrik and Wallman, Lars and Schouenborg, Jens and Eriksson Linsmeier, Cecilia},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  publisher    = {Public Library of Science},
  series       = {PLoS ONE},
  title        = {Influence of probe flexibility and gelatin embedding on neuronal density and glial responses to brain implants.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119340},
  volume       = {10},
  year         = {2015},
}